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حامد جوادی پرویز رضوانی مقدم محمد حسن راشد محصل محمد جواد ثقه الاسلامی

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی مدیریت کود بر برخی خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک و جذب عناصر نیتروژن و فسفر توسط خرفه، دو آزمایش جداگانه در دو سال زراعی 94-1393 و 95-1394 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه بیرجند با سه تکرار انجام شد. در آزمایش اول که به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی اجرا شد، چهار کود سبز شامل: شاهد (بدون کود سبز)، ماشک گل خوشه‌ای (Vicia villosa L.)، منداب (Eruca sativa L.) و مخلوط منداب و ماشک گل خوشه‌ای به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و سه سطح کود نیتروژن به‌صورت خالص شامل: صفر (شاهد)، 50 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. در آزمایش دوم که به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی انجام شد، تیمارهای آزمایش بر اساس ترکیبی از چهار منبع تأمین‌کننده نیتروژن شامل: کود گاوی، ورمی‌کمپوست، کود شیمیایی (NPK) و شاهد (بدون اعمال هیچ‌گونه کودی) و نیز چهار نوع کود زیستی شامل: نیتروکسین (شامل ازتوباکتر و آزوسپیریلوم)، میکوریزا (Glomus intraradices)، بیوسولفور (شامل تیوباسیلوس همراه با گوگرد) و شاهد (بدون هیچ‌گونه کودی) بودند. صفات مورد مطالعه در این آزمایش شامل: درصد کربن آلی و نیتروژن خاک، میزان فسفر قابل جذب خاک، pH و EC خاک و درصد نیتروژن و فسفر زیست‌توده بودند. نتایج نشان داد که استفاده از کود سبز باعث افزایش درصد کربن آلی، نیتروژن خاک و میزان فسفر قابل جذب خاک و کاهش pH خاک شد. از بین تیمارهای کود سبز مورد مطالعه ماشک گل خوشه‌ای نسبت به سایرین برتر بود. همچنین، استفاده از کود نیتروژن باعث افزایش میزان فسفر قابل جذب، هدایت الکتریکی خاک و عملکرد دانه و کاهش pH خاک شد. در بین منابع تأمین‌کننده نیتروژن، تیمار کود گاوی بیشترین تأثیر را بر درصد کربن آلی، درصد نیتروژن و میزان فسفر قابل جذب خاک داشت. استفاده از کود شیمیایی (NPK) و کود گاوی نسبت به شاهد باعث افزایش 04/16 و 37/10 درصدی عملکرد دانه شد. اما نقش کاربرد کودهای زیستی به افزایش میزان فسفر قابل جذب خاک محدود شد. با توجه به اثر مثبت کودهای آلی و زیستی بر برخی خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک، بیشترین درصد نیتروژن زیست‌توده خرفه از تیمار مخلوط منداب و ماشک گل خوشه‌ای و تیمار تلفیق کود گاوی و میکوریزا حاصل شد. همچنین، بیشترین درصد فسفر زیست توده خرفه متعلق به تیمار تلفیق کود گاوی و میکوریزا بود.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

بیوسولفور, کود گاوی, میکوریزا, نیتروکسین, ورمی‌کمپوست

مراجع
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ارجاع به مقاله
جوادی ح., رضوانی مقدم پ., راشد محصل م. ح., & ثقه الاسلامی م. ج. (2019). تأثیر مدیریت کود بر برخی خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک و جذب عناصر نیتروژن و فسفر توسط خرفه (Portulaca oleracea L.). پژوهشهای زراعی ایران, 17(2), 187-205. https://doi.org/10.22067/gsc.v17i2.67458
نوع مقاله
علمی پژوهشی

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