##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

شیلان فعله گری جواد حمزه ئی محسن نائل

چکیده

حفظ بقایای گیاهی در سطح خاک و کاربرد فن‌آوری‌های مناسب مانند استفاده از خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی می‌تواند در افزایش عملکرد گیاهان زراعی تأثیرگذار باشد. این آزمایش، با هدف بررسی تأثیر چهار ساله‌ی روش‌های مختلف خاک‌ورزی (بدون خاک‌ورزی، خاک‌ورزی حداقل و مرسوم) در شرایط حضور و عدم حضور گیاه پوششی کلزا بر شاخص‌های کیفیت خاک (کربن آلی خاک و عناصر غذایی پرمصرف (NPK))، عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیک و اجزای عملکرد آفتابگردان اجرا شد. آزمایش با آرایش فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال 1393 و در منطقه دستجرد همدان انجام شد. تمامی ویژگی‌های مورد بررسی شامل کربن آلی، عناصر غذایی پر مصرف (NKP)، عملکرد بیولوژیک و اجزای عملکرد آفتابگردان به‌طور معنی‌داری (در سطح 1 درصد) تحت تأثیر تیمارهای خاک‌ورزی و گیاه پوششی قرار گرفتند، برهمکنش خاک‌ورزی× گیاه پوششی برای کربن آلی، نیتروژن، تعداد دانه در طبق و قطر طبق در سطح 1 درصد معنی‌دار بود، اما برای دیگر شاخص‌های مورد مطالعه غیرمعنی‌دار بود. در تیمار خاک‌ورزی حداقل×گیاه پوششی میزان کربن آلی 5/2 برابر نسبت به تیمار خاک‌ورزی مرسوم× بدون گیاه پوششی (شاهد) افزایش داشت، این افزایش برای سایر شاخص‌ها نیز مشاهده شد (فسفر 80 درصد، پتاسیم 30 درصد، نیتروژن 5/20 درصد، قطر طبق 67 درصد، تعداد دانه در طبق 61 درصد، وزن صد دانه 27 درصد، عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیک آفتابگردان به‌ترتیب 34 و 5/39 درصد). درصد پوکی دانه در تیمار خاک‌ورزی حداقل× گیاه پوششی نسبت به خاک‌ورزی مرسوم× بدون گیاه پوششی (شاهد) 5/2 برابر کم‌تر اندازه‌گیری شد. کلزا به دلیل تولید ماده خشک بیش‌تر در واحد سطح می‌تواند در افزایش ماده آلی خاک و بهبود شرایط فیزیکی آن مؤثر باشد. اعمال تیمارهای خاک‌ورزی حداقل و کشت گیاه پوششی کلزا موجب افزایش ذخایر مواد آلی، بهبود کیفیت خاک و عملکرد آفتابگردان گردید.

جزئیات مقاله

مراجع
1. Alexandra, M. R., Charles, B., and Jeangros, S. 2013. Effect of organic fertilizers and reduced-tillage on soil properties, crop nitrogen response and crop yield: Results of a 12-year experiment in Changins, Switzerland. Soil and Tillage Research 126: 11-18.
2. Algan, N., and Celen, A. S. 2011. Evaluation of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) as green manure in Aegean conditions in terms of soil nutrition under different sowing dates. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6 (7): 1744-1749.
3. Al-Khatib, K., Libbey, C., and Boydston, R. 1997. Weed suppression with Brassica green manure crops in green manure crops in green pea. Weed Sciences 45: 439-445.
4. All-Issa, T. A., and Samarah, N. H. 2007. The effect of tillage practices on barleyproductionunder rainfed conditions in Jordan Agricultural and Environmental Science 2 (1): 75-79.
5. Alvarez, R., and Steinbach, H. S. 2009. A review of the effects of tillage systems on some soil physical proper-ties, water content, nitrate availability and crops yield in the Argentine Pampas. Soil and Tillage Research 104:1-15.
6. Amini, A., Rajaie, M., and Farsinezhad, K. 2014. Effects of different plant residue under different tillagepractices on yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Ecophysiology 16: 27-37. (in Persian with English abstract).
7. Asadi, A., Yahyaabadi, M., and Taki, O. 2011.The Effect of Conventional and Conservation Tillage on Forage Corn Yield in a Barley-Corn Rotation. Agricultural Engineering Research 12 (1): 83-96.
8. Azimzadeh, M., Koocheki, A. R., and Bala, M. 2003. Effect of different Tillage methods on bulk density, porosity, soil moisture content and yield of wheat under dryland condition. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 4 (93): 209-224. (in Persian with English abstract).
9. Barzegar, A. R., Hashemi, A. M., Herbert, S. J., and Asoodar, M. 2004. Interactive effects of tillage system and soil water content aggregate size distribution for seedbed preparation in Fluvisols southwest Iran. Soil and Tillage Research 78: 45-52.
10. Basalma, D. 2008. The correlation and path analysis of yield and yield components of different winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 4: 120-125.
11. Blanco-canqui, H., and Lal, R. 2009. Crop residue removal impacts on soil productivity and environmental quality. Critical Review of Plant Science 28: 139-163.
12. Bremner, J. M. 1970. Nitrogen total, regular Kjeldahl method, In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part II: Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Agronomy 9: 610-616.
13. Burton, W. A., Ripley, V. L., Potts, D. A., and Salisbury, P. A. 2004. Assessment of genetic diversity in selected breeding lines and cultivars of canola quality Brassica juncea and their implications for canola breeding. Euphytica 136: 181-192.
14. Campiglia, E., Caporali, F., Radicetti, E., and Mancinelli, R. 2010. Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) cover crop residue management for improving weed control and yield in no-tillage tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production. European Journal of Agronomy 33: 94-102.
15. Celik, I., Barut, Z. B., Ortas, I., Gok, M., Demirbas, A., Tulun, Y., and Akpinar, C. 2011. Impacts of different tillage practices on some soil microbiological properties and crop yield under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. International Plant Production 5 (3): 237-254.
16. Chaghazardi, H. R., Jahnsuz, M. R., Ahmadi, A., and Gorji, M. 2010. Effects of different tillage methods on bread wheat and chickpea yield, yield components and soil physical properties under rainfed conditions in Kermanshah. Iranian Journal of Filed Crop Science 46 (4): 687-699.
17. Clapp, C. E., Allmarasa, R. R., Layeseb, M. F., Lindena, D. R., and Dowdya, R. H. 2000. Soil organic carbon and 13C abundance as related to tillage, crop residue, and nitrogen fertilization under continuous corn management in Minnesota. Soil and Tillage Research 5: 127-142.
18. Conklin, A. E., Erich, M. S., and Liebman, M. 2002, Effects of red clover (Trifolium pratense) green manure and compost soil amendments on wild mustard (Brassica kaber) growth and incidence of disease. Plant and Soil 238: 245-25.
19. Copeland, P. J., and Crookston, P. K. 1992. Crop sequence affects nutrient composition of corn and soybean grown under high fertility. Agronomy 84: 503‎-509.
20. Fink, J., Inda, A., Bavaresco, J., Barrón, V., Torrent, J., and Bayer, C. 2016. Adsorption and desorption of phosphorus in subtropical soils as affected by management system and mineralogy. Soil & Tillage Research 152: 62-68.
21. Gajri, P. R., Arora, V. K., and Prihar, S. S. 2004. Tillage for Sustainable Cropping. International Book Distributing Company.
22. Garcia, R. A., Crusciol, C. A. C., Calonego, J. C., and Rosolem, C. A. 2008. Potassium cycling in a corn–brachiaria cropping system. European Journal of Agronomy 28: 579-585.
23. Ghaffari, M., Ahmadvand, G., Ardakani, M. R., Mosaddeghi, M. R., Yeganehehpoor, F., Gaffari, M., and Mirakhori, M. 2012. Effect of Cover Crop Residues on Some Physicochemical Properties of Soil and Emergence Rate of Potato. Crop Ecophysiology 6 (1): 79-90.
24. Hamzei, J., and Borbor, A. 2014. Effect of different soil tillage methods and cover crops on yield and yield components of corn and some soil characteristics. Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production 24 (3): 35-45. (in Persian with English abstract).
25. Jahan, M., Solimani farzaghi, F., Ahmadi, F., Amiri, M. B., and Ehyaei, H. R. 2010. Interaction effects of green pea and Persian clover cover crop and biological fertilizers on yield and quality of sesame. The second National Conference on Agriculture and Sustainable Development. 11 and 12 March, Islamic Azad University of Shiraz.
26. Jeffery, L., Smith, N., and Jonathan, J. 2002. Soil properties and microbial activity across a 500 m elevation gradient in semi-arid environment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34: 1749-1757.
27. Kabiri, V., Raiesi, F., and Ghazavi, M. A. 2016. Tillage effects on soil microbial biomass, SOM mineralization and enzyme activity in a semi-arid Calcixerepts. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 232: 73-84.
28. Kruidhof, H., Bastiaans, M. L., and Kropff, M. J. 2008. Ecological weed management by cover cropping: effects on weedgrowth in autumn and weed establishment in spring, Weed Research 48: 492-502.
29. Klut, A. 1986. Method of Soil Analysis: Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Methods. Soil Science Society of America 432-449.
30. Lugandu, S. 2013. Factors Influencing the Adoption off Conservation Agriculture by Smallholder Farmers in Karatu and Kongwa Districts of Tanzania. Presented at REPOA’s 18th Annual Research Workshop held at the Kunduchi Beach Hotel, Dares Salaam, Tanzania.
31. Martins, B. H., Araujo-Junior, C. F., Miyazawa, M., Vieira, K. M., and Milori, M. B. P. 2015. Soil organic matter quality and weed diversity in coffee plantation area submitted to weed control and cover crops management. Soil and Tillage Research 153: 169-174.
32. Mikanova, O., Javurek, M., Simon, T., Friedlova, M., and Vach, M. 2009. The effect of tillage systems on some microbial characteristics. Soil and Tillage Research 105 (1): 72.
33. Mohammadi, G. R., Safari-Poor, M., Ghobadi, M. E., and Najaphy, A. 2015. The Effect of Green Manure and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Corn Yield and Growth Indices. Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science 25 (2): 105-124.
34. Mohammadi, Kh., Nabi Allahi, K., Aghaalikhani, M., and Khoormali, F. 2009. Study on the effect of different tillage methods on the soil physical properties, yield and yield components of rainfed wheat. Plant Production 16 (4): 77-91. (in Persian with English abstract).
35. Mohammadi, M. 2012. Effects of canola and nitrogen fertilizer on some physical and chemical properties of soil and yield of the next crop. Soil and Water Research Institute.
36. Mosavi, S. B., Jafarzadeh, A. A., Neishabouri, M. R., Ostan, S., and Feiziasl, V. 2009. Rye green manure along with nitrogen fertilizer application increase wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production under dryland condition Agriculture Research 4: 204-212. (in Persian with English abstract).
37. Najafi-Ghiri, M., Abtahi, A., and Jaberian, F. 2011. Factors affecting potassium release in calcareous soils of southern Iran. Soil Research 49 (6): 529-537.
38. Najafinejad, H., Jewelry, M. A., Ravari, S. Z., and Azad shahraki, F. 2009. Effect of crop rotation and crop residue management on corn yield. SC 704 and some soil properties. Seed Plant 25 (3): 258-245.
39. Nematpour, A., Kazemi, S. A. R., and Bahrani, M. 2015. The effect of seeding rate and nitrogen on yield and yield components of wheat grown canola residue. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 13 (1): 120-130.
40. Ohno, T., Doolan, K., and Zibilske, L. M. 2000. Phytotoxic effects of red clover amended soils on wild mustard seedling growth, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 78: 187-192.
41. Olsen, S. R., Cole, C. V., Watanabe, F. S., and Dean, L. A. 1954. Estimation of Available Phosphorous in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate. Department of Agriculture, Washington DC.
42. Onemli, F. 2004. The effects of soil organic matter on seedling emergence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Plant Soil Environment 50: 494-499.
43. Peterson, E. H., Pannel, D. G., Nordblom, T. L., and Shomo, F. 2002. Potential benefit from alternative areas of agricultural research for dry farming in northern Syria. Agricultural System 11 (2): 93-108.
44. Potter, M. 1999. Biochemical studies of tissue glucosinolates for improvement of canola (Brassica napus) as a disease break with in the southern Australian cereal rotation. Australasian Association of Nematologist.Canola, 1-3.
45. Ramrodi, M., Mazaheri, D., Hoseini, N., Hosseinzadeh, A. H., and Hosseini, M. B. 2010. The impact of cover crops, tillage systems and nitrogen fertilization on yield of forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 41 (4): 763-769. (in Persian with English abstract).
46. Raymer, P. L. 2002. Canola: an emerging oilseed crop. Trends in New Crops and New Uses 1: 122-126.
47. Rounsevell, M. D. A., Evans, S. P., and Bullock, P. 1999. Climate change and agricultural soils: impacts and adaptation. Climate Change 43: 683-709.
48. Sepide dam, S., and Ramroudi, M. 2016. Effects of tillage systems and nitrogen fertilizer on yield, yield components and seed protein of wheat. Applied Research of Plant Ecophysiology 2 (2): 33-49.
49. Shahpary, Z., Fateh, E., and Aynehband, A. 2016.The effect of different residue type, management and nitrogen on yield, quality of durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) and soil macronutrients. Electronic Journal of Crop Production 9 (3): 87-104.
50. Shams Abadi, H. A., Taherirad, A. R., Khorramdel, S., and Nikkhah, A. 2014. The effect of tillage methods, plant density and planting patterns on growth characteristics, yield components and gain yield of sweet corn under Malaysia climatic conditions. Electronic Journal of Crop Production 8 (1): 79-98. (in Persian with English abstract).
51. Sharma, P., Abrol, V., and Sharma, R. K. 2011. Impact of tillage and mulch management on economics, energy requirement and crop performance in maize–wheat rotation in rainfed subhumid inceptisols, India. European Journal of Agronomy 34: 46-51.
52. Simon, T., Javurek, M., Mikanová, O., and Vach, M. 2009. The influence of tillage systems on soil organic matter and soil hydrophobicity. Soil and Tillage Research 105: 44-48.
53. Sohrabi, S. S., Fateh, E., Aynehband, A., and Rahnama, A. 2014. Effect of crop residue management and nitrogen fertilizer on accumulation and remobilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) dry matter. Crop Production 7 (2): 113-134.
54. Vokovic, I., Mesic, M., Zgorelec, Z., Jurisic, A., and Sajko, K. 2008. Nitrogen use efficiency in winter wheat. Cereal Research Communications 36: 1119-1202.
55. Yasari, E., and Patwardhan, A. M. 2007. Effects of Aztobacter and Azospirillium inoculations and chemical fertilizers on growth and productivity of canola. Asian Journal of Plant Science 6 (1): 77-82.
ارجاع به مقاله
فعله گری ش., حمزه ئی ج., & نائل م. (2018). اثر نظام‌های خاک‌ورزی و گیاه پوششی کلزا بر خصوصیات کیفی خاک، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد آفتابگردان. پژوهشهای زراعی ایران, 16(3), 599-614. https://doi.org/10.22067/gsc.v16i3.68952
نوع مقاله
علمی پژوهشی

مقالات بیشتر خوانده شده از همین نویسنده