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حسنعلی پوراسماعیل مهدی دهمرده احمد قنبری

چکیده

کشاورزی پایدار بر پایه مدیریت کارآمد عناصر تولید در جهت بهبود کیفیت خاک استوار است و یکی از مشکلات اصلی در کشاورزی پایدار کمبود مواد آلی خاک و تبعات آن می‌باشد. یکی از راه‌های ممکن، ارزان و قابل اجرا برای افزایش مواد آلی در اراضی کشاورزی برگرداندن بقایای محصولات زراعی به خاک است. در کشاورزی پایدار استفاده از کمپوست و ورمی‌کمپوست باعث افزایش فعالیت میکروبی خاک شده و این باعث افزایش عناصر غذایی مورد نیاز گیاه خصوصاً عناصر پر مصرف گردیده و این افزایش عملکرد گیاه زراعی را به دنبال دارد. به منظور ارزیابی سیستم تلفیقی مدیریت کودی و زمان برداشت بر کمیت و کیفیت علوفه ذرت رقم 260 (رقم زودرس)، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 96-1395 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زابل به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتور اول شامل سطوح مختلف سیستم تلفیقی مدیریت کودی در ده سطح: (شاهد، 30 درصد بقایای گندم، 60 درصد بقایای گندم، 90 درصد بقایای گندم، 30 درصد ورمی‌کمپوست، 60 درصد ورمی‌کمپوست، 100 درصد ورمی‌کمپوست، 10 درصد ورمی‌کمپوست بعلاوه 90 درصد بقایای گندم، 40 درصد ورمی‌کمپوست بعلاوه 60 درصد بقایای گندم و 70 درصد ورمی‌کمپوست بعلاوه 30 درصد بقایای گندم) و فاکتور دوم زمان برداشت در دو سطح: (برداشت در مرحله شیری و خمیری) بودند. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل وزن خشک برگ، وزن خشک ساقه، قابلیت هضم ماده خشک، هیدرات‌های کربن محلول در آب، درصد پروتئین خام و عملکرد پروتئین، فیبر خام، الیاف نامحلول در شوینده اسیدی، الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی و خاکستر بودند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده‌ها نشان داد که اثر برهمکنش مرحله برداشت با سیستم تلفیقی مدیریت کودی بر وزن خشک برگ، وزن خشک ساقه، قابلیت هضم ماده خشک، درصد هیدرات‌های کربن محلول در آب و الیاف نامحلول در شوینده اسیدی معنی‌دار بود. همچنین اثر مرحله برداشت بر درصد پروتئین خام و درصد خاکستر بسیار معنی‌دار؛ اثر مرحله برداشت و اثر سیستم تلفیقی مدیریت کودی بر درصد فیبر خام معنی‌دار و اثر ساده سیستم تلفیقی مدیریت کودی بر الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی معنی‌دار بود. بیشترین وزن خشک برگ (146 گرم) و وزن خشک ساقه (33/185 گرم) در مرحله شیری شدن دانه و در شرایط کاربرد 70 درصد ورمی‌کمپوست به‌علاوه 30 درصد بقایای گندم به‌دست آمد. کیفیت مطلوب زمانی حاصل می‌شود که گیاه دارای قابلیت هضم ماده خشک، پروتئین خام، هیدرات‌های کربن محلول در آب و درصد خاکستر بیشتری باشد. به‌طور کلی استفاده از نسبت‌های 60 و 100 درصد ورمی‌کمپوست و 60 درصد بقایای گندم باعث بهبود کیفیت علوفه گردید.

جزئیات مقاله

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ارجاع به مقاله
پوراسماعیلح., دهمردهم., & قنبریا. (۱۳۹۷-۰۵-۰۱). ارزیابی عملکرد کمی و کیفی علوفه ذرت 260 تحت تاثیر مدیریت تلفیقی کود و بقایای گیاهی. پژوهشهای زراعی ایران, 16(4), 861-879. https://doi.org/10.22067/gsc.v16i4.72820
نوع مقاله
علمی پژوهشی

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