اثر تنش شوری بر صفات فیزیولوژیک و فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانت نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) رقم آزاد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه بیرجند

2 بیرجند

چکیده

شوری یکی از مهم‌ترین تنش‌های غیر‌زنده‌ای است که باعث کاهش قابلیت تولید محصول و کاهش بهره‌وری گیاه در خاک‌های مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک می‌شود. در گیاهان زراعی، شوری ضمن تأثیر منفی بر عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد، بسیاری فرآیندهای دخیل در رشد‌و‌نمو گیاهان را تحت تأثیر قرار می‌دهد. این تحقیق با هدف مطالعه صفات فیزیولوژیک، فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانت و عملکرد نخود رقم آزاد تحت تأثیر سطوح مختلف شوری، در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند در سال 1392 در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای شوری خاک شامل 1، 3، 5، 7 و 9‌دسی‌زیمنس بر متر بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده‌های این آزمایش نشان‌داد که سطوح مختلف شوری اثر معنی‌داری بر کلیه صفات اندازه‌گیری شده داشت. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش شوری باعث افزایش اندکی در شاخص SPAD نخود شده و اثر منفی بر محتوای نسبی آب برگ، نشت الکترولیت‌ها و عملکرد دانه داشت. به‌طور‌ی‌که بیش‌ترین سطح شوری این آزمایش موجب کاهش 7/17‌درصدی RWC، افزایش 75/27‌درصدی نشت الکترولیت‌ها و کاهش 83/59‌درصدی عملکرد دانه در بوته نسبت به شاهد شد. هم‌چنین شوری باعث افزایش فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدانت نخود شد. نتایج نشان‌داد افزایش شوری از یک به هفت‌دسی‌زیمنس بر متر موجب افزایش 79/63‌درصدی فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز (CAT) شد و در شوری 9‌دسی‌زیمنس بر متر فعالیت کاتالاز کاهش یافت. فعالیت آنزیم سوپراُکسید‌دیسموتاز (SOD) تا شوری پنج ‌دسی‌زیمنس بر متر به مقدار 22/57‌درصد افزایش یافت، در شوری هفت دسی‌زیمنس بر متر بدون تغییر ماند. در شوری 9‌دسی‌زیمنس بر متر کاهش یافت. هم‌چنین بیش‌ترین سطح شوری باعث افزایش 95/75‌درصدی فعالیت آنزیم آسکوربات‌پِراُکسیداز (APX) نسبت به شاهد شد. بیش‌ترین اثرات کاهنده شوری بر صفات اندازه‌گیری شده نخود در این آزمایش در محدوده شوری dSm-1‌7 مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


1. Ahmad, M., Niazi, B. H., and Athar, M. 2005. Varietals differencese in agronomic performance of six wheat varieties grown under saline field environment. International Journal of Science and Technology 2(1): 49-57.
2. Ahmad, P., Jaleel, C., Azooz, M., and Gowher, N. 2009. Generation of ROS and non-enzymatic antioxidants during abiotic stress in plants. Botany Research International 2: 11-20.
3. Arefian, M., Vesal, S., Bagheri, A., and Ganjeali A. 2012. Evaluation of some morpho-physiological characteristics of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Under Salt Stress. 1th National Conference on Plant Stress (Abiotic), 31 Oct. - 1 Nov. 2012. University of Isfahan.
4. Arzani, A. 2008. Improving salinity tolerance in crop plants: biotechnology view. In vitro Cellular and Development Biology Plant 44(5): 373-383.
5. Asha Dhingra, H.R. 2007. Salinity mediated changes in yield and nutritive value of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds. indian journal of plant physiology 12(3): 271-275.
6. Askary, M., Maghsoudi Moud, A. A., and Saffari, V.R. 2013. Investigation of some physiological characteristics and grain yield of Corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids under salinity stress. Journal of Crop Production and Processing 9(3): 93-103. (In Persian with English Abstract).
7. Azari, A., Modares Sanavi, S. A. M., Askari, H., Ghanati, F., Naji, A. M., and Alizadeh B. 2012. Effect of salt stress on morphological and physiological traits of two species of rapeseed (Brassica napus and B. rapa). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 14(2): 121-135. (In Persian with English Abstract).
8. Bandeoglu, E., Egidogan, F., Yucel, M., and Avni Oktem, H. 2004. Antioxidant responses of shoots and roots of lentil to NaCl-salinity stress. Plant Growth Regulation 42: 69-77.
9. Becana, M., Moran, J. F., and Iturbe-Ormaetxe, I. 1998. Iron dependent oxygen free radical generation in plants subjected to environmental stress: toxicity and antioxidant protection. Plant and Soil 201: 137-147.
10. Bernstein, N., Silk, W. K., and Lauchli, A. L. 1993. Growth and development of sorghum leaves under conditions of NaCl stress. Planta 191: 433-439.
11. Bor, M., Özdemir, F., and Türkan, I. 2003. The effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in leaves of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. and wild beet (Beta maritima L.). Plant Science 164: 77-84.
12. Borzouei, A., Kafi, M., Khazaei, H., Khorasani, A., and Majdabadi, A. 2012. The Study of Physiological Characteristics and Enzyme Superoxide Dismutas Activity in Two Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars at Different Growth Stages under Irrigation Water Salinity. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 9(2): 190-201. (In Persian with English Abstract).
13. 13- Cakmak I., and Horst W.J. 1991. Effect of aluminum on lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase activities in root tips of soybean (Glycine max). Physiologia Plantarum 83: 463–468.
14. Chamaani, F., Habibi, D., Khodabandeh, N., Davoodifard, M., and Asgharzadeh, A. 2012. Effects of salinity stress on growth and antioxidant enzyme activity of wheat inoculated with plant growth promoting bacteria (Azotobacter chroocccum, Azospirillum lipoferum, Pseudomonase putida) and humic acid. Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding 8(2): 39-55. (In Persian with English Abstract).
15. Dehshiri, A., Modares Sanavi, M., Rezai, H., and Shirani Rad A. 2012. Effect of elevated concentration of atomospheric carbon dioxide on some traits of three rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) varieties under saline conditions. Seed and Plant Production Journal 28(2): 35-52.
16. Demiral, T., and Turkan, I. 2005. Comparative lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense systems and proline content in roots of two rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany 53: 247-257.
17. Douce, R., Bourguignon, J., Neuburger, M., and Rebeille, F. 2001. The glycin decarboxylase system a fascinating complex. Trends Plant Science 6: 167-176.
18. El-Tayeb, M.A. 2005. Response of barley grain to the interactive effect of salinity and salicylic acid. Plant Growth Regulation 42: 215-224.
19. Esfandiari, E., Abbasi, A., Enayati, W., and Mosavi, S.B. 2010. Different Behavior of Root and Leaf in Grass Pea Landraces in Response to Oxidative Stress Caused by Salinity. Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science 20(4): 65-75. (In Persian with English Abstract).
20. Esfandiari, E., Javadi, A., and Shokrpour, M. 2013. Evaluation of some of biochemical and physiological traits in wheat cultivars in response to salinity stress at seedling stage. Crops Improvement 15(1): 27-38. (In Persian with English Abstract).
21. FAO., 2011. Land and plant nutrition management service. Available on line at: http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/agll/ spush. Accessed 25 November 2011.
22. Farooq, S., and Azam, F. 2006. The use of cell membrane stability (CMS) technique to screen for salt tolerant wheat varieties. Journal of Plant Physiology 163: 629-637.
23. Francois, L.E., Grieve, C.M., Mass, E.V., and Lesch, S.M. 1994. Time of salt stress affects growth and yield components of irrigated wheat. Agronomy Journal 86: 100-107.
24. Gossett, D.R., Millhollon, E.P., and Cran-Lucas, M. 1994. Antioxidant response to NaCl stress in salt-tolerant and saltsensitive cultivars of cotton. Crop Science 34: 706-714.
25. Grattan, D.R., and Grive, C.M. 1998. Salinity–mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops. Scientia Horticulturae 78: 127-157.
26. Habibollahi, N., Mahdiyeh, M., and Amirjani, M.R. 2012. Effect of salt stress on growth, proline, antioxidant enzyme activity and photosystem II efficiency in salt-sensitive and-tolerant rice cultivars. Journal of Plant Biology 13: 85-96. (In Persian with English Abstract).
27. Han, H.S., and Lee, K.D. 2005. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria effect on antioxidant status, photosynthesis, mineral uptake and growth of Lettuce under soil salinity. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 1 (3): 210-215.
28. Jabari, F., Ahmadi A., and Poustini, K. 2006. Relationships between anti-oxidant enzyme activates and chlorophyll content of different wheat cultivars. Journal of Agricultural Science 37(1): 307-316.
29. Jome Bidokhti, E. 2014. Invistigation on growth chatacteristics, grain yield and yield components of some varieties Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under salinity strees. MSc Thesis in agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture University of Birjand (In Persian).
30. Kafi, M., Bagheri, A., Nabati, J., Zare Mehrjerdi, M., and Masomi, A. 2011. Effect of salinity on some physiological variables of 11 chickpea genotypes under hydroponic conditions. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture 4(1): 55-69. (In Persian with English Abstract).
31. Kafi, M., Nabati, J., Zare Mehrjerdi, M., Goldani, M., Khaninejad, S., Keshmiri, E., and Norooziyan, A. 2012. Effect of calcium and potassium on amelioration of negative effects of salinity on some physiological characteristics Kochia (Kochia scoparia). Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences 5(2): 181-192. (In Persian with English Abstract).
32. Khan, N.A., and Singh, S. 2008. Abiotic stress and plant responses. I K International Publishing House, New Delhi, 312.
33. Mehlhorn, H., Lelandais, M., Korth, H.G. and Foyer, C.H. 1996. Ascorbate is the natural substrate for plant peroxidases. Federation of European Biochemical Societies 378, 203.206.
34. Misra, A.N., Sahl, S.M., Misra, M., Singh, P., Meera, T., Das, N., Har, M. and Sahu P. 1977. Sodium choloride induced changes in leaf groth, and pigmemt and protein contents in two rice cultivars. Biologia Plantarum 39: 257-262.
35. Mohammadkhani, N., and Heidari, R. 2007. Effects of drought stress on protective enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in two maize cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10(21): 3835-3840.
36. Momeni, N., Arvin, M. J., Khagoei nejad, G. R., Daneshmand, F., and Keramat B. 2012. The effect of sodium chloride and salicylic acid on antioxidant defense system in maize (Zea mays L.). Iranian Journal of Plant Biology 14: 23-34
37. Moradi, F., and Abdelbaghi, M. I. 2007. Responses of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and ROS-scavenging systems to salt stress during seedling and reproductive stages in rice. Annals of Botany 99: 1161-1173.
38. Munns, R. 2005. Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together. New Phytologist 167(3): 645-663.
39. Munns, R., and Tester, M. 2008. Mechanism of salinity tolerance. The Annual Review of Plant Biology 59: 651-681.
40. Munns, R., James, R. A., and Lauchi, A. 2006. Approaches to increasing the salt tolerance of wheat and other cereals. Journal of Experimental Botany 57(5): 1025-1043.
41. Nakano, Y., and Asada, K. 1981. Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant cell physiology 22(1981): 867–880.
42. Noctor, G., and Foyer, C. 1998. Ascorbate and glutathione: Keeping active oxygen under control. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 49: 249-279.
43. Rasoolnia, A., Bi hamta, M. R., Peyghambari, A., Alizade, H., Takallo, S., and Kamalizade, M. 2012. Evaluation of leaf proteome pattern and antioxidant activity of barley under salinity stress. Iranian Journal of Field Science 43(2): 231-241. (In Persian).
44. Rezaei, M. A., Khavarinezhad, R. A., and Fahimi, H. 2006. Effect salinity natural soils on peroxidase activity of two cotton cultivars. Journal of Basic Science, University of Azad 62(1): 79-89. (In Persian with English Abstract).
45. Ritchie, S.W., and Nguyen, H. T. 1990. Leaf water content and gas exchange parameters of two wheat genotypes differing in drought resistance. Crop Science 30: 105-111.
46. RodriguezRosales, M.P., Kerkeb, L., Bueno, P., and Donaire, J. P. 1999. Changes induced by NaCl in lipid content and composition, lipoxygenase, plasma memberane H+ ATPase and antioxidant enzyme activities of tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum, Mill) calli. Plant Science 143: 143-150.
47. Roy, F., Boye, J., and Simpson, B. 2010. Bioactive proteins and peptides in pulse crops: Pea, chickpea and lentil. Food Research International 43: 432-442.
48. Sadikia, M., and Rabihb, K. 2001. Selection of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for yield and symbiotic nitrogen fixation ability under salt stress. Agronomy 21: 659-666.
49. Sairam, R.K., Rao K.V., and Srivastava, G.C. 2002. Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Science 163: 1037-1046.
50. Sharma, D. and Jodha, N.S. 1982. Pulses Production in Semi-Arid Regions of India, Constraints and Opportunities. Economic and Political Weekly 17(51): A139-A148.
51. Sharma, K.D., Singh, N., and Bishnoi, N. R. 1984. Effect of chloride and sulfate salinity on flowering and yield attributes of ckickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 36: 266-268.
52. Shi, D., and Sheng, Y. 2004. Effect of various salts alkaline mixed stress conditions on sunflower seedling and analysis of their stress factors. Environmental and Experimental Botany 54: 8-21.
53. Sinclair, T.R., and Ludlow, M. M. 1985. Who taught plants thermodynamics? The unfulfilled potential of plant water potential. Australian Journal Plant Physiology 133: 213-217.
54. Stephen, R.G. 2008. Irrigation water salinity and crop production. University of California, Davis, In Water Quality Planning Reference Sheet, 9.10, http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu, Publication 8066.
55. Stroeher, V.L., Boothe, J.G., and Good, A.G. 1995. Molecular cloning and expression of turgor responsive gene in Brassica napus. Plant Molcular Biology 27: 541-551.
56. Summart, J., Thanonkeo, P., Panichajakul, S., Prathepha, P., and Mc Manse, M. T. 2010. Effect of salt stress on growth, inorganic ion and proline accumulation in Thai aromatic rice, Kaho Dawk Mail 105, Callus Culture 9(2): 145- 152.
57. Tan, Y., Liang, Z.S., Hongbo, H.B., and Du, F. 2006. Effect of water deficits on the activity of anti-oxidative enzymes and osmoregulation among three different genotypes of Radix Astragali at graining stage. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 49: 60-65.
58. Turan, M., and Sezan, Y. 2001. Effect of salt stress on plant nutrition uptake.
59. Tuteja, N., and Gill, S. S. 2010. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 48: 909-930.
60. Zibai, S., Rahimi, A., and Dashti, H. 2012. Effects of seed priming on growth, chlorophyll Content, Relative Water Content and Dry Matter Distribution of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius, cv. Gholdasht) under salinity stress. Journal of Crop Production and Processing 5(2): 47-58. (In Persian with English Abstract).