اثر کود نانو کلات روی و تلقیح با قارچ مایکوریزا بر برخی خصوصیات زراعی و فیزیولوژیک گلرنگ (Carthamus tinctorius L.) در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد


به منظور ارزیابی تأثیر کود نانو کلات روی و تلقیح با قارچ مایکوریزا بر برخی خصوصیات زراعی و فیزیولوژیک گیاه گلرنگ (Carthamus tinctorius L.) در شرایط تنش خشکی، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خرد شده بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه ای واقع در استان آذربایجان غربی، شهرستان نقده در سال زراعی 93-1392 اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل چهار سطح خشکی (آبیاری بعد از 60، 110، 160 و 210 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک کلاس A) و فاکتور فرعی شامل چهار سطح کودی (عدم مصرف کود، قارچ مایکوریزا (Glmus intraradices)، نانو کود روی و ترکیب قارچ مایکوریزا + نانو کود روی) بود. صفات مورد بررسی شامل تعداد طبق در بوته، تعداد دانه در طبق، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد زیستی، عملکرد دانه، درصد روغن، محتوی پرولین و قندهای محلول گلرنگ بود. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش تنش خشکی عملکرد دانه و اجزای عملکرد (تعداد طبق در بوته، تعداد دانه در طبق و وزن هزار دانه) به طور معنی داری کاهش یافت، ولی کاربرد منابع کودی اثرات نامطلوب ناشی از تنش خشکی را تخفیف داد، به طوری که در تمام سطوح آبیاری مصرف جداگانه نانو کود روی، مایکوریزا و کاربرد تلفیقی مایکوریزا+ نانو کود روی باعث افزایش صفات مورد بررسی گردید. بیشترین عملکرد دانه از تیمار آبیاری پس از 60 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر با کاربرد تلفیقی مایکوریزا + نانو کود روی (2588 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کمترین مقدار آن از تیمار آبیاری پس از 210 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر در شرایط عدم مصرف کود (1836 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به دست آمد. اگرچه درصد روغن با افزایش تنش خشکی کاهش یافت، اما کاربرد تلفیقی مایکوریزا+ نانو کود روی درصد روغن را به‌طور معنی داری (11 درصد) نسبت به شاهد (عدم مصرف کود) افزایش داد. با افزایش تنش خشکی و کاربرد نانو کود روی و مایکوریزا میزان قندهای محلول و پرولین به طور معنی داری افزایش یافت. به طور کلی، نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که تلقیح با مایکوریزا در شرایط کمبود آب، می تواند با توسعه سیستم ریشه ای و افزایش سطح جذب ریشه، جذب آب و عناصر غذایی را توسط گیاه افزایش داده و سبب افزایش مقاومت گیاه در برابر کم آبی شود، از طرف دیگر، با توجه به نقش عنصر روی در گیاه، وجود مقدار کافی از این عنصر در شرایط تنش کم آبی می تواند از طریق تنظیم سازگاری، موجب تخفیف اثرات تنش خشکی شود.


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