اثر تنش خشکی بر کارایی مصرف آب و وزن خشک ریشه گندم (Triticum aesativum L.) و چاودار (Secale cereale L.) در شرایط رقابت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


دانشگاه بیرجند


یکی از مهمترین عواملی که باعث کاهش تولید گیاهان زراعی در سراسر جهان می شود، کمبود آب در طی فصل رشد است، در این راستا به‌منظور بررسی اثر تنش خشکی و رقابت درون و برون گونه ای بر وزن خشک ریشه و کارایی مصرف آب گندم و چاودار، مطالعه ای در بهار سال 1391 در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند به‌صورت فاکتوریل سه عاملی در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. عامل های آزمایش شامل چهار تراکم گندم (صفر، 8، 16، 24 بوته در گلدان)، چهار تراکم چاودار (صفر، 2، 4، 6 بوته در گلدان) و دو سطح تنش خشکی شامل آبیاری در 20% و 60% تخلیه رطوبت ظرفیت زراعی خاک بود. براساس نتایج تجزیه واریانس، تمامی اثرات متقابل، تأثیر معنی داری (01/0>P) بر کارایی مصرف آب گندم داشتند اما تنها اثر متقابل رقابت برون گونه ای و تنش خشکی بر کارایی مصرف آب چاودار معنی دار (01/0>P) بود. همچنین اثر متقابل سه گانه نیز تأثیر معنی داری (01/0>P) بر وزن خشک ریشه گندم داشت. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش تنش خشکی کارایی مصرف آب در گندم به میزان 98/16 درصد کاهش و در چاودار 95/33 درصد افزایش یافت. کارایی مصرف آب در گندم و چاودار تحت تأثیر رقابت درون گونه ای به ترتیب 43/10 و 16/28 درصد افزایش و تحت تأثیر رقابت برون گونه ای به‌ترتیب 39/57 و 03/81 درصد کاهش یافت. وزن خشک ریشه گندم تحت تأثیر تنش خشکی قرار نگرفت ولی با افزایش تراکم چاودار و تراکم گندم به‎ترتیب 29/64 و 95/48 درصد کاهش یافت همچنین وزن خشک ریشه چاودار تحت تأثیر تنش خشکی و رقابت برون گونه ای و درون گونه ای به‎ترتیب 14/37، 43/47 و 60/33 درصد کاهش یافت.


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