اثر ترکیب‌های مختلف کاشت و کود زیستی بر کارآیی مصرف آب و نیتروژن در کشت مخلوط ارزن معمولی (Panicum miliaceum L.) و لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی (Vigna unguiculata L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی اثر کشت مخلوط ارزن معمولی و لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی و استفاده از کود زیستی برکارآیی مصرف آب و نیتروژن، آزمایشی طی سال 1393 در نجف‌آباد اصفهان به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. دو سطح کود زیستی فسفاته بارور2 به‌عنوان عامل کرت اصلی و شش ترکیب کاشت شامل: کشت خالص ارزن معمولی، کشت خالص لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی و نسبت‌های مخلوط سری‌های افزایشی شامل: 100% ارزن+ 25% لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی، 100% ارزن+ 50% لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی، 100% ارزن+ 75% لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی و 100% ارزن+ 100% لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی، به‌عنوان عامل کرت فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر کود زیستی بر کارآیی مصرف آب، کارآیی‌های نیتروژن شامل: کارآیی جذب، کارآیی فیزیولوژیک و کارآیی مصرف نیتروژن معنی‌دار بود. نسبت‌های کاشت نیز اثر معنی‌داری بر کارآیی مصرف آب و شاخص‌های کارآیی نیتروژن داشتند، به‌طوری‌که بیشترین کارآیی مصرف آب (0/704، 0/473 و 0/784 کیلوگرم دانه بر متر مکعب آب) به‌ترتیب برای ارزن در تیمار 100% ارزن +25% لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی، برای لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی در کشت خالص و برای مجموع دو گونه در تیمار 100% ارزن+ 25% لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی حاصل شد. همچنین بیشترین کارآیی جذب نیتروژن (77/7، 101/7 و 120/2 درصد)، کارآیی فیزیولوژیک نیتروژن (55/3، 37 و 66/8کیلوگرم دانه به‌ازای هر کیلوگرم نیتروژن زیست توده) و کارآیی مصرف نیتروژن (43/2، 37/7 و 48/1 کیلوگرم دانه به‌ازای هر کیلوگرم نیتروژن خاک) به‌ترتیب برای ارزن در تیمار 100% ارزن+ 25% لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی، برای لوبیا در کشت خالص آن و برای مجموع دو گونه نیز در تیمار 100% ارزن + 25% لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی به‌دست آمد. لذا چنین استنباط می‌شود که مدیریت مبتنی بر درک صحیح از اصول و مبانی اکولوژیکی سیستم‌های کشت مخلوط و استفاده از کودهای زیستی می‌تواند رهیافتی جهت بهره‌وری و استفاده بهینه از منابع (آب و نیتروژن) به‌منظور تولید مطلوب، کاهش هزینه‌ها و وابستگی به منابع گران قیمت، کاهش آلودگی‌ها و فشارهای زیست محیطی در سامانه‌های کشاورزی پایدار باشد.

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