تأثیر سطوح مختلف حاصلخیزکننده‌های آلی و شیمیایی بر عملکرد، شاخص برداشت و درصد عصاره گیاه دارویی شاهدانه (Cannabis sativa L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

یکی از نیازهای مهم در برنامه‌ریزی زراعی به‌منظور حصول عملکرد بالاتر گیاهان دارویی، ارزیابی سیستم‌های مختلف تغذیه گیاه است. جهت بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف کودهای دامی و شیمیایی بر گیاه دارویی شاهدانه آزمایشی در سال 1394 به‌صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه‌ی تحقیقاتی دانشکده‌ی کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند انجام گرفت. فاکتورهای مورد آزمایش شامل: کود دامی (صفر، 10، 20 و 30 تن در هکتار کود گاوی پوسیده شده) به‌عنوان کرت اصلی و کود نیتروژن (صفر، 50 و 100 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار از منبع کود اوره) به‌همراه کود فسفر (صفر و 80 کیلوگرم فسفر خالص در هکتار از منبع کود سوپرفسفات تریپل) به‌عنوان کرت فرعی و به‌صورت فاکتوریل بودند. اعمال کودهای دامی، فسفر و نیمی از کود نیتروژن قبل از کاشت و نیمی دیگر از کود نیتروژن به‌صورت سرک انجام شد. صفات مورد مطالعه در این آزمایش شامل درصد بوته‌های ماده، ارتفاع و قطر ساقه، عملکردهای ساقه، برگ، دانه و بیولوژیک، وزن هزار دانه، شاخص برداشت و درصد عصاره گیاه بودند. نتایج نشان داد که نوع مدیریت حاصلخیزی خاک تأثیر معنی‌داری بر درصد بوته‌های ماده شاهدانه نداشت. با افزایش سطوح کود دامی و کودهای شیمیایی نیتروژن و فسفر، ارتفاع و قطر ساقه، عملکرد ساقه و برگ و میزان عصاره برگ افزایش یافت. فسفر وزن هزاردانه را به میزان 18/11 درصد افزایش داد. تیمار 20 تن کود دامی به‌همراه 100 کیلوگرم نیتروژن و 80 کیلوگرم فسفر در هکتار بالاترین عملکرد ساقه و برگ را به‌ترتیب به میزان 83/2541 و 6/ 7001 کیلوگرم در هکتار تولید نمود. تیمار 30 تن کود دامی به‌همراه 50 کیلوگرم نیتروژن و 80 کیلوگرم فسفر در هکتار نیز در افزایش عملکرد ساقه مؤثر بود. در این آزمایش، مقادیر 20 تن کود دامی به‌همراه 100 کیلوگرم نیتروژن و 80 کیلوگرم فسفر در هکتار و همچنین مقادیر 30 تن کود دامی به‌همراه 50 کیلوگرم نیتروژن و 80 کیلوگرم فسفر در هکتار تیمارهای مطلوب برای افزایش عملکرد شاهدانه بودند. لذا استفاده تلفیقی از کودهای دامی و شیمیایی در مقایسه با کاربرد هریک از آن‌ها به تنهایی، تأثیر مثبت بیشتری بر رشد و عملکرد شاهدانه دارد. همچنین در تغذیه این گیاه باید به هدف تولید از شاهدانه توجه داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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