تأثیر کودهای زیستی بر برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیک و جذب فسفر و پتاسیم در گیاه دارویی کاسنی (Cichorium intybus) در واکنش به تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه زابل

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر انواع کودهای زیستی بر ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیک و جذب برخی عناصر غذایی در گیاه دارویی کاسنی تحت تنش خشکی، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی پژوهشکده کشاورزی (چاه نیمه) دانشگاه زابل انجام شد. عامل اصلی تنش خشکی شامل آبیاری پس از 90، 70 و 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی خاک و عامل فرعی انواع کودهای زیستی شامل شاهد (عدم کاربرد کود)، نیتروکسین به‌صورت بذر مال به میزان یک لیتر در هکتار، ریزموجودات مفید یا کود EM(Effective Microorganism) به میزان 40 لیتر در هکتار و نانوکلات پتاسیم (27 درصد) به میزان 10 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌صورت محلول‌پاشی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که تأثیر برهمکنش تنش خشکی و کود بر محتوای رطوبت نسبی برگ، رنگدانه‌های فتوسنتز، کاروتنوئید، درصد پروتئین، عملکرد گل، محتوای پرولین، کربوهیدرات محلول، فلاونوئیدهای برگ، جذب فسفر و پتاسیم به‌جز کلروفیل b معنی‌دار شد. با افزایش شدت تنش محتوای رطوبت نسبی برگ، رنگدانه‌های فتوسنتز، کاروتنوئید، درصد پروتئین، عملکرد گل و جذب فسفر و پتاسیم کاهش، ولی محتوای پرولین، کربوهیدرات محلول و فلاونوئیدهای برگ افزایش یافت. مقایسه میانگین‌ها نشان داد که بیشترین محتوای رطوبت نسبی برگ، رنگدانه‌های فتوسنتز و عملکرد گل از تیمار آبیاری پس از 90 درصد ظرفیت زراعی خاک توأم با کاربرد EM و بیشترین درصد پروتئین از تیمار آبیاری پس از 90 درصد ظرفیت زراعی خاک توأم با استفاده کود نیتروکسین به‌دست آمد، در حالی‌که بیشترین محتوای پرولین و کربوهیدرات محلول از تیمار آبیاری پس از 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی خاک توأم با کاربرد نانو کلات پتاسیم و بیشترین جذب پتاسیم و فسفر از تیمار آبیاری پس از 90 درصد ظرفیت زراعی خاک توأم با کاربرد نانو کلات پتاسیم حاصل شد. نتایج حاکی از آن است که با افزایش سطح تنش خشکی، کاهش معنی‌داری در جذب عناصر غذایی و رنگدانه‌های فتوسنتز به‌وجود آمد. بیشترین میزان در این ویژگی‌ها از سطح تنش شدید خشکی حاصل شد. در مجموع می‌توان چنین استنباط کرد که استفاده از کودهای زیستی سبب کاهش خسارت ناشی از تنش خشکی در گیاه دارویی کاسنی گردید.

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