مطالعه اثرات زیست‌محیطی محصولات عمده زراعی استان خراسان رضوی با استفاده از ارزیابی چرخه حیات

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

چکیده

تجزیه و تحلیل نظام‌های کشاورزی به منظور بررسی اثرات زیست‌محیطی موجب ارتقاء کیفی مدیریت و توسعه پایدار کشاورزی می‌شود. این مطالعه با هدف بررسی اثرات زیست‌محیطی نظام‌های عمده تولیدات زراعی در استان خراسان رضوی شامل گندم، ذرت، چغندرقند، کلزا، گوجه‌فرنگی، سیب‌زمینی، خربزه، هندوانه و خیار با استفاده از ارزیابی چرخه حیات (LCA) انجام شد. بدین منظور، میانگین نهاده‌های مصرفی طی سال‌های 95-1385 با استفاده از پرسشنامه و آمارنامه‌های وزارت جهاد کشاورزی جمع‌آوری و بر اساس روش ISO14044، LCA در چهار گام شامل مشخص‌سازی اهداف و حوزه عمل، ممیزی چرخه حیات، ارزیابی تأثیر چرخه حیات و تلفیق، نتیجه‌گیری و تفسیر نتایج انجام شد. در این مورد، واحد کارکردی معادل یک تن محصول اقتصادی از هر گیاه در نظر گرفته شد. گروه‌های تأثیر مورد مطالعه شامل گرمایش جهانی، اسیدی شدن و سرشارسازی بود. در آخرین مرحله، شاخص بوم‌شناخت (Ecox) محاسبه شد. برای سنجش قابلیت روایی پرسشنامه، ضریب آلفای کرونباخ محاسبه گردید. نتایج نشان داد که ضریب آلفای کرونباخ 82%=α نشان‌دهنده قابلیت اعتماد بالای پرسشنامه بوده است. بیشترین سهم انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای در گروه تأثیر گرمایش جهانی مربوط به دی اکسید کربن بود. بیشترین و کمترین پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی به‌ترتیب برای کلزا (01/1342 واحد معادل کیلوگرم CO2 به‌ازای هر یک تن عملکرد اقتصادی) و چغندرقند (25/27 واحد معادل کیلوگرم CO2 به‌ازای هر یک تن عملکرد اقتصادی) به‌دست آمد. بیشترین پتانسیل سرشارسازی نظام‌های آبی مربوط به کلزا با 59/0 واحد معادل کیلوگرم PO4 به‌ازای هر یک تن عملکرد اقتصادی بود و کمترین میزان برای چغندرقند با 01/0 واحد معادل کیلوگرم PO4 به‌ازای هر یک تن عملکرد اقتصادی حاصل شد. بیشترین مجموع شاخص بوم‌شناخت مربوط به کلزا با 67/0 EcoX به‌ازای هر یک تن عملکرد اقتصادی بود و کمترین میزان برای چغندرقند با 01/0 EcoX به‌ازای هر یک تن عملکرد اقتصادی حاصل شد. مجموع شاخص بوم‌شناخت در نظام تولید کلزا در مقایسه با نظام‌های تولید گندم، ذرت، هندوانه، خیار، خربزه، گوجه‌فرنگی و سیب‌زمینی به‌ترتیب برابر با 38، 46، 49، 59، 77، 80 و 94 درصد بالاتر به‌دست آمد بیشترین سهم در مقایسه گروه‌ای تأثیر مربوط به سرشارسازی آبی (با میانگین 56 درصد) بود. بر این اساس، به منظور کاهش اثرات زیست‌محیطی نظام‌های تولید توصیه می‌شود از مدیریت پایدار حاصلخیزی خاک، جایگزینی نهاده‌های شیمیایی، افزایش کارایی مصرف نهاده‌ها، خاکورزی کاهش یافته، تناوب زراعی، کشت مخلوط با گیاهان تثبیت‌کننده نیتروژن و انتخاب گیاهان با هزینه‌های زیست‌محیطی کمتر در الگوی کاشت بهره‌گیری شود.

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