اثر مدیریت‌های مختلف بقایای گیاهی گندم و چغندرقند بر برخی ویژگی‌های شیمیایی و زیستی خاک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب استان خراسان رضوی

چکیده

روش‌های مدیریتی بقایای گیاهی با تاثیر بر ویژگی‌های خاک، می‌تواند نقش موثری در بهبود باروری و کیفیت خاک و همچنین افزایش عملکرد محصول داشته باشند. به‌منظور بررسی تاثیر مدیریت‌های مختلف بقایای گیاهی گندم و چغندرقند بر برخی ویژگی‌های شیمیایی و زیستی خاک، دو طرح آزمایشی مجزا در قالب طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار به اجرا درآمد. نتایج نشان داد که مدیریت‌های مختلف بقایای گیاهی گندم و چغندرقند موجب تغییرات معنی‌داری بر ویژگی‌های شیمیایی (غیر از اسیدیته) و زیستی مورد مطالعه شدند. تمام روش‌های مدیریتی نظیر سوزاندن بقایا، مخلوط کردن بقایا، مخلوط کردن بقایا همراه با کود شیمیایی به‌جز رهاسازی بقایا در سطح خاک موجب افزایش مقدار کربن آلی، نیتروژن کل، فسفر قابل دسترس و پتاسیم قابل دسترس خاک نسبت به تیمار شاهد شدند. به‌طور کلی در هر دو بقایای گیاهی بیشترین مقدار کربن آلی، نیتروژن کل و پتاسیم قابل دسترس مربوط به تیمار بقایای گیاهی به همراه کود اوره و شخم بود. در مورد تنفس میکروبی پایه و کربن زیست‌توده میکروبی خاک موثرترین روش‌های مدیریتی تیمار بقایای گیاهی به همراه شخم بود. همچنین در این پژوهش اگرچه تیمارهای سوزاندن بقایای گیاهی موجب بهبود وضعیت عناصر غذایی، تنفس میکروبی پایه و کربن زیست‌توده میکروبی نسبت به تیمار شاهد شدند ولی کارایی کمتری نسبت به تیمارهای شخم و افزودن کود به بقایا داشتند. براساس نتایج می‌توان گفت مناسب‌ترین روش از نظر ارتقای شاخص‌های کیفی خاک در هر دو بقایای گندم و چغندرقند مخلوط کردن بقایا به‌وسیله شخم با خاک به همراه کود اوره و همچنین مخلوط کردن بقایا به‌وسیله شخم با خاک بوده است.

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