تاثیر تقسیط نیتروژن و تراکم‌های مختلف بوته بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه دو ژنوتیپ برنج (Oryza sativa L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک

3 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قائم شهر

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثر تقسیط نیتروژن و تراکم‌های مختلف بوته بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه دو ژنوتیپ برنج انجام شد و بدین منظور آزمایشی به‎صورت کرت‌های یک‌بار خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی واقع در شهرستان قائم‌شهر طی سال‌های 93-1392 و 94-1393 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل سه سطح تراکم بوته (16، 25 و 3/33 بوته در متر مربع) به‎عنوان عامل اصلی و پنج سطح تقسیط نیتروژن (S1: مصرف کامل (100%) در مرحله ابتدای کاشت یا پایه، S2: 50% در مرحله ابتدای کاشت یا پایه + 50% در مرحله ابتدای پنجه‌دهی، S3: 50% در مرحله ابتدای کاشت یا پایه + 50% در مرحله ظهور خوشه‌آغازین، S4: 33/33% در مرحله ابتدای کاشت یا پایه + 33/33% در مرحله ابتدای پنجه‌دهی + 33/33% در مرحله ظهور خوشه‌آغازین و S5: 33/33% در مرحله ابتدای کاشت یا پایه + 33/33% ظهور خوشه‌آغازین + 33/33% در مرحله خوشه­دهی کامل) به‎عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان دادند که ارقام هاشمی و کوهسار در سال دوم به‌ترتیب کاهش 21/9 درصدی و افزایش 74/23 درصدی عملکرد دانه را نسبت به سال اول داشتند. همچنین سال دوم نسبت به سال اول کاهش 62/11 درصدی و 36/30 درصدی عملکرد کاه را به‌ترتیب در ارقام هاشمی و کوهسار نشان داد. عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت با افزایش تراکم در رقم هاشمی به‌ترتیب افزایش و کاهش یافتند. عملکرد کاه در هر دو رقم با افزایش تراکم افزایش نشان دادند. کمترین عملکرد کاه و بیشترین شاخص برداشت در هر دو رقم، با تقسیط نیتروژن به نسبت مساوی در مراحل ابتدای کاشت، ظهور خوشه‌آغازین و خوشه‌دهی کامل حاصل آمد. اثر متقابل بین عامل‌ها در ارقام مورد مطالعه نشان داد که در هر دو سال زراعی تعداد خوشه در متر مربع با افزایش تراکم افزایش یافت.

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