بررسی صفات زراعی و پارامترهای فلورسانس کلروفیل ژنوتیپ‌های برنج (Oryza sativa L.) در شرایط آبیاری غرقاب و زیرسطحی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه گنبد کاووس

2 دانشگاه گیلان

3 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

4 مجتمع آموزش عالی شیروان

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی دو ژنوتیپ 87.110 و AE121 از نظر صفات زراعی و فتوسنتزی در شرایط غرقاب و آبیاری زیرسطحی دو آزمایش در سال 1396 در دانشگاه گنبد کاووس انجام شد. هر دو آزمایش به‌صورت مرکب و در دو آزمایش جداگانه (غرقاب و زیرسطحی) به‌ترتیب در 18 و 3 تکرار انجام شد. با توجه به یکنواختی خاک مورد استفاده، طرح پایه به‌صورت کاملاً تصادفی در نظر گرفته شد. در روش آبیاری غرقابی، زمین به‌صورت متداول آماده‌سازی شد. برای آبیاری زیرسطحی خاک هر کرت تا عمق 40 سانتی‌متر برداشته شده و کپسول‌های رسی متخلخل کار گذاشته شد. برخی از صفات اندازه‌گیری شده شامل: ارتفاع و وزن کل بوته، وزن کل خوشه‌ها، طول خوشه اصلی، تعداد دانه پر و پوک، میزان باروری، وزن دانه پر، عملکرد، Y(II)، qP، qN، qL، NPQ، Fv/Fm، F'v/F'm، ETR، FO، F'O، Fv، Fm، F'm و F' بود. اختلاف بین روش‌های آبیاری و ارقام مورد بررسی در اکثر صفات زراعی به‌جز طول، عرض و مساحت برگ پرچم، عملکرد، وزن کل، تعداد خوشه نابارور و طول خوشه اصلی معنی‌دار بود. نتایج مقایسه میانگین نشان داد اکثر صفات مربوط به عملکرد در شرایط آبیاری غرقاب بهتر از زیرسطحی بودند. میزان عملکرد نیز در شرایط غرقاب 84/5069 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود، در حالی‌که در شرایط زیرسطحی میزان عملکرد 13/4223 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. همچنین نتایج مطلوب از پارامترهای فلورسانس در شرایط غرقاب مشاهده شد که در این بین سرعت انتقال الکترون از فتوسیستم 2 (ETR) در حالت غرقاب 13/37 بود که این میزان در شرایط زیرسطحی به 65/27 کاهش یافت. نتایج نشان داد ژنوتیپ AE121 دارای عملکرد بالاتری است و پتانسیل بالاتری تحت هر دو شرایط دارد و می‌توان کشت آن را برای دستیابی به عمکرد بالا توصیه نمود.

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