تأثیر حاصلخیزکننده‌های خاک بر ترکیبات فنلی، فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانتی و عملکرد اندام‌های رویشی گیاه نعناع فلفلی (Mentha piperita L.) تحت تنش کم‌آبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 موسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور

چکیده

کمبود آب در ایران همواره به‌عنوان عامل محدودکننده تولید محصولات زراعی و باغی به‌شمار می‌رود. در این شرایط، نحوه جذب عناصر غذایی و انجام فرآیندهای متابولیسمی گیاهان متفاوت بوده و می‌تواند سبب کاهش رشد گردد که میزان این کاهش همواره با تغییرات مهمی در خصوصیات کیفی گیاهان ازجمله گیاهان دارویی همراه است. در همین راستا برای بررسی تنش کم‌آبی (در سه سطح بدون تنش، تنش متوسط و تنش شدید) و شش رژیم کودی (تأمین نیاز کود نیتروژن گیاه به‌وسیله تلفیقی از کود ورمی‌کمپوست و کود اوره)، آزمایشی در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس در سال 1397 انجام شد. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل میزان کلروفیل، فلاوونوئید، آنتوسیانین، کارتنوئید، DPPH فنول‌های کل، ارتفاع، شاخص سطح برگ، وزن خشک بیوماس، درصد و عملکرد اسانس بودند. نتایج حاکی از آن بود که تیمار کم‌آبی باعث کاهش میزان کلروفیل برگ، DPPH، ارتفاع گیاه، شاخص سطح برگ، وزن خشک اندام هوایی و عملکرد اسانس شد. اگرچه میزان فلاونوئیدها، کارتنوئید، فنل‌های کل و درصد اسانس با کم‌آبیاری متوسط افزایش و در کم‌آبیاری شدید دوباره کاهش یافتند. افزایش میزان ورمی‌کمپوست در تیمار کودی منجر به افزایش مقدار صفات فیزیولوژیک و رویشی گیاه نعناع فلفلی شد. مطابق نتایج به‌دست آمده از اثر متقابل دو تیمار، بیشترین ارتفاع گیاه، وزن خشک اندام هوایی و عملکرد اسانس در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و تیمار 14 تن ورمی‌کمپوست به‌دست آمد. بیشترین میزان فنل‌های کل در کم‌آبیاری متوسط و کود تلفیقی 70 کیلوگرم اوره+7 تن ورمی‌کمپوست حاصل شد. همچنین بیشترین درصد اسانس و میزان فلاونوئیدها در کم‌آبیاری متوسط همراه با 14 تن کود ورمی‌کمپوست مشاهده شد. به‌طور کلی نتایج نشان داد در بین رژیم‌های آبیاری، کود ورمی‌کمپوست هم در عملکرد رویشی و هم در صفات فیزیولوژیک گیاه اثر مثبتی داشت.

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