مقایسه اثرات زیست‌محیطی نظام‌های رایج و کم‌نهاده زعفران در استان خراسان رضوی با استفاده از ارزیابی چرخه حیات LCA

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

دانش بومی راهکاری سنتی در مدیریت نظام‌های کم‌نهاده و خرده‌پا است که عمدتاً برای سازگاری با گرمایش جهانی و تغییر اقلیم و حفاظت از منابع طبیعی نیز مفید واقع می‌شود. این مطالعه با هدف مقایسه اثرات زیست‌محیطی ‌نظام‌های کم‌نهاده و رایج زعفران در استان خراسان رضوی انجام شد. نهاده‌های مصرفی طی سال‌های اول تا هفتم با استفاده از 76 پرسشنامه جمع‌آوری و تعیین شد. ارزیابی چرخه حیات بر اساس روش ISO14044، در چهار گام مشخص‌سازی اهداف و حوزه عمل، ممیزی چرخه حیات، ارزیابی تاثیر چرخه حیات و تلفیق، نتیجه‌گیری و تفسیر نتایج محاسبه گردید. گروه‌های تاثیر مورد مطالعه شامل گرمایش جهانی، اسیدی شدن و اوتریفیکاسیون (در محیط‌های خشکی و آبی) بودند. واحد کارکردی معادل یک کیلوگرم گل در نظر گرفته شد. انتشار مستقیم و غیرمستقیم اکسید نیتروس و انتشار اکسید نیتروس تحت تاثیر آبشویی و تصعید برای نظام‌های مختلف محاسبه شد. به‌منظور بررسی همبستگی متغیرهای مختلف عملکرد با میزان مصرف نهاده‌ها از آزمون کای مربع و ضریب همبستگی پیرسون استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که در مدیریت‌های مختلف، بین عملکرد با مصرف سوخت، کاربرد نیتروژن و سوخت، مصرف نیتروژن و فسفر و کاربرد کود دامی با عملکرد رابطه معنی‌داری (05/0≥p) وجود داشت. عملکرد گل در نظام تحت مدیریت رایج در مقایسه با نظام‌ کم‌نهاده 71 درصد بالاتر بود. پتانسیل اوتریفیکاسیون آبی برای نظام رایج برابر با 07/15 کیلوگرم معادل PO4 به ازای یک کیلوگرم گل محاسبه شد که 34 درصد بالاتر از نظام کم‌نهاده بود. شاخص بوم‌شناخت برای نظام‌های کم‌نهاده و رایج به‌ترتیب 72/2 و 51/3 EcoX به ازای یک کیلوگرم گل محاسبه شد. سهم گروه‌های مختلف تاثیر شامل گرمایش جهانی، اسیدی شدن و اوتریفیکاسیون در بوم‌نظام‌های خشکی و آبی از مجموع شاخص بوم‌شناخت در نظام رایج به‌ترتیب 16، 7، 8 و 69 درصد و برای نظام کم‌نهاده به‌ترتیب 17، 7، 8 و 68 درصد محاسبه شد. بالاترین ضریب همبستگی پیرسون برای عملکرد گل و مصرف سوخت برابر با 824/0+ ثبت گردید. به‌کارگیری مدیریت کم‌نهاده اثرات زیست‌محیطی کمتری در مقایسه با نظام‌های رایج به دنبال داشت. بر اساس نتایج، پیشنهاد می‌شود که خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی، تلفیق دانش بومی و بهره‌گیری از مدیریت سنتی بر پایه حضور زنان می‌تواند به‌عنوان راهکارهایی برای کاهش اثرات زیست‌محیطی، مقابله با گرمایش جهانی و تغییر اقلیم، دستیابی به کشاورزی پایدار و حفاظت از منابع طبیعی و آب در نظام‌های فشرده تولید زعفران مدنظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها



  1. Aguilera, E., Lassaletta, L., Gattinger, A., and Gimeno, B. S. 2013a. Managing soil carbon for climate change mitigation and adaptation in Mediterranean cropping systems: A meta-analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 168: 25-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.02.003.
  2. Aguilera, E., Lassaletta, L., Sanz-Cobena, A., Garnier, J., and Vallejo, A. 2013b. The potential of organic fertilizers and water management to reduce N2O emissions in Mediterranean climate cropping systems. A review. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 164: 32-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2012.09.006.
  3. Al-Kaisi, M. M., and Yin, X. 2005. Tillage and crop residue effects on soil carbon and carbon dioxide emission in corn–soybean rotations. Journal of Environmental Quality 34, 437-445. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2005.0437.
  4. Alluvione, F., Moretti, B., Sacco, D., and Grignani, 2011. EUE (energy use efficiency) of cropping systems for a sustainable agriculture. Energy 36 (7): 4468-4481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.03.075.
  5. Baker, J. M., Ochsner, T. E., Venterea, R. T., and Griffis, T. J. 2007. Tillage and soil carbon sequestration- What do we really know? Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 118 (1): 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2006.05.014.
  6. Bakhtiari, A. A., Hematian, A., and Sharifi, A. 2015. Energy analyses and greenhouse gas emissions assessment for saffron production cycle. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22 (20): 16184-16201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4843-6.
  7. Balesdent, J., Chenu, C., and Balabane, M. 2000. Relationship of soil organic matter dynamics to physical protection and tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 53 (3): 215-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-1987(99)00107-5.
  8. Bexfield, L. M. 2008. Decadal-scale changes of pesticides in ground water of the United States, 1993-2003. Journal of Environmental Quality 37: 226-239. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2007.0054.
  9. Billen, G., Garnier, J., and Lassaletta, L. 2013. The nitrogen cascade from agricultural soils to the sea: Modelling nitrogen transfers at regional watershed and global scales. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological 368(1621): 20130123. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0123.
  10. Biswas, W. K., Barton, L., and Carter, D. 2008. Global warming potential of wheat production in Western Australia: A life cycle assessment. Water Environment Research 22: 206- https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-6593.2008.00127.x.
  11. Brentrup, F., Küsters, J., Kuhlmann, H., and Lammel, J. 2001. Application of the life cycle assessment methodology to agricultural production: An example of sugar beet production with different forms of nitrogen fertilisers. The European Journal of Agronomy 14: 221-233. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301(00)00098-8.
  12. Brentrup, F., Küsters, J., Kuhlmann, H., and Lammel, J. 2004a. Environmental impact assessment of agricultural production systems using the life cycle assessment methodology: I. Theoretical concept of a LCA method tailored to crop production. European Journal of Agronomy 20 (3): 247- https://doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301(03)00024-8.
  13. Brentrup, F., Küsters, J., Lammel, J., Barraclough, P., and Kuhlmann, H. 2004b. Environmental impact assessment of agricultural production systems using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology: II. The application to N fertilizer use in winter wheat production systems. European Journal of Agronomy 20 (3): 265- https://doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301(03)00039-X.
  14. Briggs, J. 2013. Indigenous knowledge: A false dawn for development theory and practices? The Progress in Development Studies 13 (3): 231-243. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464993413486549.
  15. Briggs, J. 2014. Indigenous knowledge and development: In Desai, V. and Potter, B. R. (Ed.): The Companion to Development Studies. 3rd London and New York: Routledge.
  16. Briggs, J., and Sharp, J. 2004. Indigenous knowledge and development: A postcolonial Third World Quarterly 25 (4): 661-676. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436590410001678915.
  17. Charles, R., Jolliet, O., Gillard, G., and Pellet, D. 2006. Environmental analysis of intensity level in wheat production using life cycle assessment. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 113: 216-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.09.014.
  18. Cheharsoghi, H., and Mirdamadi, M. 2008. An analytical study of the factors influencing sustainable agriculture practical women farmers in Anzali: With emphasis on indigenous knowledge for rice cultivation. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Knowledge 5 (1): 61-83. (in Persian with English abstract).
  19. Congreves, K. A., Hayes, A., Verhallen, E. A., and Van Eerd, L. L. 2015. Long-term impact of tillage and crop rotation on soil health at four temperate agroecosystems. Soil and Tillage Research 152: 17-
  20. Crutzen, P. J. 1981. Atmospheric chemical processes of the oxides of nitrogen, including nitrous oxide. In: C.C. Delwiche (Ed.), Denitrification, nitrification, and atmospheric nitrous oxide, New York: Wiley. p. 17-44.
  21. Delcour, I., Spanoghe, P., and Uyttendaele, M. 2015. Literature review: Impact of climate change on pesticide use. Food Research International 68: 7-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.09.030.
  22. Doran, J. W., and Zeiss, M. R. 2000. Soil health and sustainability: managing the biotic component of soil quality. Applied Soil Ecology 15: 3-11.
  23. ECAF. 2109. A major new research study in favour of conservation agriculture. Available at Web site http://ecaf.org/inaction/news/item/60-a-major-new-research-study-in-favour-of-conservation-agriculture.
  24. Fallahi, H. R., Behdani, M. A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Jami Al-Ahmadi, M. 2021. Principles of standardization of organic saffron production in Iran. Journal of Saffron Agronomy and Technology 9 (1): 43-79. (in Persian with English abstract).
  25. Finkbeiner, M., Inaba, A., Tan, B. H., Christiansen, K., and Klüppel, H. J. 2006. The new international standards for life cycle assessment: ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 11 (2): 80-85. https://doi.org/10.1065/lca2006.02.002.
  26. Ford, J. D., Cameron, L., Rubis, J., Maillet, M., Nakashima, D., Cunsolo Willox, A., and Pearce, T. 2016. Including indigenous knowledge and experience in IPCC assessment reports. Nature Climate Change 6: 349-353. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2954.
  27. Galloway Mclean, K. 2010. Climate change impacts, adaptation, mitigation and indigenous peoples-a compendium of case studies. United Nations University– Traditional Knowledge Initiative, Darwin, Australia.
  28. Galvin, K. A. 2009. Transitions: Pastoralists living with change. The Annual Review of Anthropology 38: 185-
  29. Gan, Y., Liang, C., Huang, G., Malhi, S., Brandt, A., and Katepa-Mupondwa, F. 2012. Carbon footprint of canola and mustard is a function of the rate of N fertilizer. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 17: 58-68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-011-0337-z.
  30. García-Palma, M. B., and Sánchez-Mora Molina, M. I. 2016. Knowledge and female entrepreneurship: A competence and social dimension. Suma de Negocios 7: 32-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sumneg.2015.12.005.
  31. Glazenbrook, T. 2011. Women and climate change: A case-study from northeast Ghana. Hypatia 26 (4): 762-782. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.2011.01212.x.
  32. Green, D., and Raygorodetsky, G. 2010. Indigenous knowledge of a changing climate. Climatic Change 100: 239-242.
  33. Gregory, P. J., Ingram, J. S. I., and Brklacich, M. 2005. Climate change and food security. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 360: 2139-2148. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2005.1745.
  34. Gresta, F., Avola, G., Lombardo, G. M., Siracusa, L., and Ruberto, G. 2009. Analysis of flowering, stigmas yield and qualitative traits of saffron (Crocus sativus) as affected by environmental conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 119: 320-324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2008.08.008.
  35. Guinée, J. B. 2001. Life cycle assessment: An operational guide to the ISO standards. Centre of Environmental Science, Leiden University, Leiden.
  36. Heffer, P., and Prud-homme, M. 2009. Mediumterm outlook for global fertilizer demand, supply and trade: 2009-2013. In Proceedings 77th IFA Annual Conference, 25th -27th May, Shangha, China. P. 1-12.
  37. Helgason, B. L., Janzen, H. H., Chantigny, M. H., Drury, C. F., Ellert, B. H., Gregorich, E. G., Lemke, R. L., Pattey, E., Rochette, P., and Wagner-Riddle, C. 2005. Toward improved coefficients for predicting direct N2O emissions from soil in Canadian agroecosystems. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 71: 87-99. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-004-7358-y.
  38. Heller, M. C., and Keoleian, G. A. 2003. Assessing the sustainability of the US food system: A life cycle perspective. Agricultural Systems 76: 1007-1041. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-521X(02)00027-6.
  39. Hillier, J., Hawes, C., Squire, G., Hilton, A., Wale, S., and Smith, P. 2009. The carbon footprints of food crop production. The International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 7 (2): 107-118. https://doi.org/10.3763/ijas.2009.0419.
  40. Hiwasaki, L., Luna, E., Syamsidik, S., and Shaw, 2014. Process for integrating local and indigenous knowledge with science for hydro-meteorological disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in coastal and small island communities. The International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 10: 15-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2014.07.007.
  41. Hobbs, P. R., and Govaerts, B. 2010. How conservation agriculture can contribute to buffering climate change. Climate change and crop production 1, Department of crop and soil sciences, 609 Bradfield Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
  42. Iriarte, A., Rieradevall, J., and Gabarrell, X. 2010. Life cycle assessment of sunflower and rapeseed as energy crops under Chilean conditions. Journal of Cleaner Production 18 (4): 336-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.11.004.
  43. ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 2006. ISO 14040: 2006(E) Environmental Management- Life Cycle Assessment- Principles and Framework.
  44. Karimi, P., Qureshi, A. S., Bahramloo, R., and Molden, D. 2012. Reducing carbon emissions through improved irrigation and groundwater management: A case study from Iran. Agricultural Water Management 108: 52-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2011.09.001.
  45. Keikotlhaile, B. M. 2011. Influence of the processing factors on pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables and its application in consumer risk assessment. Ghent
  46. Khorramdel, S., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Amin Ghafori, A. 2018. Economic evaluation of agroecosystem services of saffron in Khorasan Razavi province. Saffron Agronomy and Technology 6 (1): 89-73. (in Persian with English abstract).
  47. Khoshnevisan, B., Rafiei, S., Omid, M., Keyhani, A., and Movahedi, M. 2013. Assessing of energy indices and environmental impacts of potato production (Case study: Fereydoonshahr region, Isfahan province). Iranian Journal of Biosystems Engineering 44 (1): 57-66. (in Persian with English abstract).
  48. Khresat, S. 2016. Practicing conservation agriculture to mitigate and adapt to climate change in Jordan. Geophysical Research 18: 685.
  49. Koocheki, A. 2018. Agro-ecological aspects of saffron production with a holistic approach. In: Fifth National Conference on Saffron, November 14-15, Torbat-Heydarieh, Iran. (in Persian with English abstract).
  50. Koocheki, A., Karbasi, A. R., and Seyyedi, S. M. 2017. Some reasons for saffron yield loss over the last 30 years period. Saffron Agronomy and Technology 5 (2): 107-122. (in Persian with English abstract).
  51. Koocheki, A., Khorramel, S., and Shabahang, J. 2021. Evaluation of quality criteria and yield of saffron on simulated On-farm conditions. Journal of Saffron Research 9 (1): 95-114. (in Persian with English abstract).
  52. Koocheki, A., Nassiri, M., Alizadeh, A., and Ganjali, A. 2009. Modelling the impact of climate change on flowering behaviour of saffron (Crocus sativus). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 7 (2): 583-594. (in Persian with English abstract).
  53. Lee, H., Lautenbach, S., Nieto, P. G., Bondeau, A., Cramer, W., and Geijzendorffer, I. R. 2019. The impact of conservation farming practices on Mediterranean agro-ecosystem services provisioning- A meta-analysis. Regional Environmental Change 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-018-1447-y.
  54. McKune, S. L., Borresen, B. C., Young, A. G., Ryley, T. D. A., Russo, S., Camara, A. D., Coleman, M., and Ryan, E. P. 2015. Climate change through a gendered lens: Examining livestock holder food security. Global Food Security 6: 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2015.05.001.
  55. Menzel, A. 2000. Trends in phenological phases in Europe between 1951 and 1996. The International Society of Biometeorology 44: 76-81. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004840000054.
  56. Molina, R. V., Garcıa-Luis, A., Coll, V., Ferrer, C., and Valero, M. 2004. Flower formation in the saffron (Crocus sativus). The role of temperature. Acta Horticulturae 650: 39-47.
  57. Molina, R. V., Valerol, M., Navarro1, Y., Guardiola, J. L., and García-Luis, A. 2005. Temperature effects on flower formation in saffron (Crocus sativus). Scientia Horticulturae 103: 361-379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2004.06.005.
  58. Montanari, B., and Bergh, S. I. 2019. Why women's traditional knowledge matters in the production processes of natural product development: The case of the Green Morocco Plan. Women's Studies International Forum 77: 102-275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2019.102275.
  59. Morugán-Coronado, A., Linares, C., Gómez-López, M. D., Faz, Á., and Zornoza, R. 2020. The impact of intercropping, tillage and fertilizer type on soil and crop yield in fruit orchards under Mediterranean conditions: A meta-analysis of field Agricultural Systems 178: 102-736. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2019.102736.
  60. Moudrý, J., Jelínková, Z., Plch, R., Moudrý, J., Konvalina, P., and Hyšpler, R. 2013. The emissions of greenhouse gases produced during growing and processing of wheat products in the Czech Republic. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 11 (1): 1133-1136.
  61. Murage, A. W., Pittchar, J. O., Midega, C. A. O., Onyango, C. O., and Khan, Z. R. 2015. Gender specific perceptions and adoption of the climate-smart push-pull technology in eastern Africa. Crop Protection 76: 83-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2015.06.014.
  62. Oehl, F., Oberson, A., Tagmann, H. U., Besson, J. M., Dubois, D., Mäder, P., Roth, H. R., and Frossard, E. 2002. Phosphorus budget and phosphorus availability in soils under organic and conventional farming. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 62: 25-35. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015195023724.
  63. Ramedani, Z., Rafiee, S., and Heidari, M. D. 2011. An investigation on energy consumption and sensitivity analysis of soybean production farms. Energy 36 (11): 6340-6344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.09.042.
  64. Rezvanfar, A., Sameiee, A., and Faham, E. 2009. Analysis of factors affecting adoption of sustainable soil conservation practices among wheat growers. World Applied Sciences Journal 6 (5): 644-651.
  65. Robertson, G. P., Paul, E. A., and Harwood, R. R. 2000. Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture: Contribution of individual gases to the radiate forcing of the atmosphere. Science 289: 1922-1925. DOI: 10.1126/science.289.5486.1922.
  66. Rochette, P. 2008. Estimation of N2O emissions from agricultural soils in Canada, I: Development of a country specific methodology. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 88 (5): 641-654.
  67. Romero-Gámez, M., Audsley, E., and Suárez-Rey, E. M. 2014. Life cycle assessment of cultivating lettuce and escarole in Spain. Journal of Cleaner Production 73: 193-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.10.053.
  68. Salick, J., and Ross, N. 2009. Traditional peoples and climate change. Global Environmental Change 19 (2): 137-139.
  69. Shahvali, M. 2011. Enriching indigenous knowledge: An alternative paradigm for empowerment. Knowledge Management for Development Journal. 6: 194-205. (in Persian with English abstract).
  70. Six, J., Ogle, S. M., Conant, R. T., Mosier, A. R., and Paustian, K. 2004. The potential to mitigate global warming with no‐tillage management is only realized when practised in the long term. Global Change Biology 10 (2): 155-160. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2003.00730.x.
  71. Smith, B. M., Chakrabarti, P., Chatterjee, A., Chatterjee, S., Dey, U. K., Dicks, L. V., Giri, B., Laha, S., Majhi, R. K., and Basu, P. 2017. Collating and validating indigenous and local knowledge to apply multiple knowledge systems to an environmental challenge: A case-study of pollinators in India. Biological Conservation 211: 20-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.04.032.
  72. Strauch, M., Rurai, M. T., and Almedom, A. M. 2016. Influence of forest management systems on natural resource use and provision of ecosystem services in Tanzania 2016. Journal of Environmental Management 180: 35-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.05.004.
  73. Su, Z., Zhang, J., Wu, W., Cai, D., Lv, J., Jiang, G., Huang, J., Gao, J., Hartmann, R., and Gabriels, D. 2007. Effects of conservation tillage practices on winter wheat water-use efficiency and crop yield on the Loess Plateau, China. Agricultural Water Management 87 (3): 307-314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2006.08.005.
  74. Tilman, D., Cassman, K. G., Matson, P. A., Naylor, R., and Polasky, S. 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418: 671-677. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01014.
  75. Tubiello, F. N., Salvatore, M., Ferrara, A. F., House, J., Federici, S., Rossi, S., Biancalani, R., Condor Golec, R. D., Jacobs, H., Flammini, A., Prosperi, P., Cardenas-Galindo, P., Schmidhuber, J., Sanz Sanchez, M. J., Srivastava, N., and Smith, P. 2015. The contribution of agriculture, forestry and other land use activities to global warming, 1990-2012. Global Change Biology 21 (7): 2655-2660.https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12865.
  76. Turner, N., and Garibaldi, A. 2004. Cultural keystone species: Implications for ecological conservation and restoration. Ecology and Society 9 (3): 1.
  77. UN-CFCCC. 2013. Best practices and available tools for the use of indigenous and traditional knowledge and practices for adaptation, and the application of gender-sensitive approaches and tools for understanding and assessing impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. Technical report. Available at: https://unfccc.int/documents/7927. (Accessed 28 April 2018).
  78. Van der Hoek, K.W., and Van Schijndel, M.W. 2006. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal manure management 1990-2003. Background document on the calculation method for the Dutch National Inventory Report. RIVM and MNP (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency), Beethoven, The Netherlands. p. 1-50.
  79. Vicente-Vicente, J. L., García-Ruiz, R., Francaviglia, R., Aguilera, E., and Smith, P. 2016. Soil carbon sequestration rates under Mediterranean woody crops using recommended management practices: A meta-analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 235: 204-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.10.024.
  80. White, J. W., Hoogenboom, G., Kimball, B. A., and Wall, G. W. 2011. Methodologies for simulating impacts of climate change on crop production. Field Crops Research 124: 357-368.
  81. Woodley, E. 1991. Indigenous ecological knowledge systems and development. Agriculture and Human Values 8 (1-2): 173-178.
  82. Yuan, S., and Peng, S. 2017. Trends in the economic return on energy use and energy use efficiency in China's crop production. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 70: 836-844. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.264.
  83. Zhang, C., Chen, J., and Wen, Z. 2012. Assessment of policy alternatives and key technologies for energy conservation and water pollution reduction in Chinas synthetic ammonia Journal of Cleaner Production 25: 96-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.11.056.
  84. Zhang, L., Zhuang, Q., He, Y., Liu, Y., Dongsheng, Y., Zhao, Q., Shi, X., Xing, S., and Wang, G. 2016. Toward optimal soil organic carbon sequestration with effects of agricultural management practices and climate change in Tai-Lake paddy soils of China. Geoderma 275: 28-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.04.001.
  85. Zolfi Bavariani, M., and Nouruzi, M. 2010. Effect of organic matter on residual phosphorus recovering in a calcareous soil. Journal of Water and Soil Science 14 (52): 87-98. (in Persian with English abstract).
  86. Zornoza, R., Acosta, J. A., Bastida, F., Domínguez, S. G., Toledo, D. M., and Faz, A. 2015. Identification of sensitive indicators to assess the interrelationship between soil quality, management practices and human health. Soil 1: 173-185. https://doi.org/10.5194/soil-1-173-2015.