Effect of Mycorrhiza Symbiosis on Yield, Yield Components and Water Use Efficiency of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Affected by Different Irrigation Regimes in Mashhad Condition

Document Type : Research Article


Ferdowsi University of Mashhad


Plant association with mycorrhiza has been considered as one of the options to improve input efficiency particularly for water and nutrient - (Allen and Musik, 1993; Bolan, 1991). This has been due to kncreasing the absorbing area of the root and therefore better contact with water and nutrients. Inoculation with mycorrhiza enhances nutrient uptake with low immobility such as phosphorus and solphur-, improve association and could be an option to drought and other environmental abnormalities such as salinity (Rice et al., 2002). Moreover, higher water use efficiency (WUE) for crops -has been reported in the literatures (Sekhara and Reddy, 1993).The sustainable use of scarce water resources in Iran is a priority for agricultural development. The pressure of using water in agriculture sector is increasing, so creating ways to improve water-use efficiency and taking a full advantage of available water are crucial.
Water stress reduce crop yield by impairing the growth of crop canopy and biomass. Scheduling water application is very crucial for efficient use of drip irrigation system, as excessive irrigation reduces yield, while inadequate irrigation causes water stress and reduces production.
The aim of present study was to evaluate the symbiotic effect of mycorrhiza on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of sesame under different irrigation regimes in Mashhad.

Material and Methods
In order to investigate the impact of inoculation with two species of Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on yield, yield components and water use efficiency (WUE) of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) under different irrigation regimes, an experiment was conducted as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications during two growing seasons 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 at the Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.. The experimental factors were three irrigation regimes include 2000, 3000 and 4000 m3 ha-1, inoculation with two species of mycorrhiza fungi (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices) and control allocated to the main and sub plots, respectively.

Results and Discussion
Results showed that the effect of irrigation regimes were significant (p≤0.05) on yield components except 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, harvest index (HI) and WUE based on biological yield and seed yield. By increasing the irrigation level from 2000 to 4000 m3 ha-1 biological and seed yield enhanced up to 52% and 118%, respectively. Increasing the irrigation level from 2000 to 4000 m3 ha-1 also improved WUE based on seed yield up to 22%. Inoculation with mycorrhiza species had significant effect on yield components, biological yield, seed yield, HI and WUE based on biological yield and seed yield P ≤ 0.05). Inoculation with G. mosseae improved seed yield compared to G. intraradices and control with 7 and 12%, respectively. These improvement of WUE based on seed yield were 7% and 24%, respectively. In general, mycorrhiza inoculation enhanced WUE through root system development and nutrient availability as this effect for G. mosseae was higher than G. intraradices.

Yield and yield components of sesame were generally more responsive to irrigation level under mycorhiza inoculation. Sesame yield and its components were significantly affected by irrigation treatments. Increase the irrigation level enhanced biological and seed yield- and also improved WUE. The water was used more efficiently in the deficit irrigation treatments where WUE increased with lower amounts of water. Inoculation with G. mosseae improved seed yield compared to G. intraradices and control. Mycorrhiza inoculation enhanced WUE due to root system development and nutrient availability. These results highlight the importance of determining the interaction effects between water level and mycorrhiza inoculation on yield of sesame to formulate proper management practices for sustainable production.


1. Alizadeh, A., and Alizadeh, A. 2007. Effects of mycorrhiza in different conditions of soil humidity on nutrient absorption in cor. Research in Agricultural Sciences 3 (1): 101-108. (in Persian with English abstract).
2. Alizadeh, A., and Kamali, G. A. 2007. Water Requirement of Crops in Iran. Astan Qods of Razavi Publication, Mashhad, Iran. (in Persian).
3. Allen, R. R., and Musik, J. T. 1993. Planting date, Water management, and maturity length relations for corn yield and water use efficiency. European Journal of Agronomy 95: 1475-1482.
4. Bolan, N. S. 1991. A critical review on the role of mycorrhizal fungi in the uptake of phosphorus by plants. Plant and Soil 134: 189-207.
5. Candon, A. G., Richards, R. A., Rebetzek, G. J., and Farquhar, G. D. 2004. Breeding for high water use efficiency. Journal of Experimental Botany 55: 2447-2460.
6. Celik, I., Ortas, I., and Kilic, S. 2004. Effects of compost, mycorrhiza, manure and fertilizer on some physical properties of a chromoxerert soil. Soil and Tillage Research 78: 59-67.
7. Chanbdrakar, B. L., Sekhar, N., Tuteja, S. S., and Tripathi, R. S. 1994. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen on growth and yield of summer sesame (Sesamum indicum). Indian Journal of Agronomy 39: 701-702.
8. Dilip, K., Ajumdar, M., and Roy, S. 1991. Response of summer sesame (Sesamum indicum) to irrigation, row spacing and plant population. Indian Journal of Agronomy 37: 758-762.
9. Dutta, P. K., Bandyopadhyay, P., and Maity, D. 2000. Response of summer sesame (Sesamum indicum) to irrigation. Indian Journal of Agronomy 54: 613-616.
10. El Naim, A. M., Ahmed, M. F., and Ibrahim, K. A. 2010. Effect of irrigation and cultivar on seed yield, yield’s components and harvest index of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 6 (4): 492-497.
11. Estrada-Luna, A., and Davies, A. 2003. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence water, relations, gas exchange, abscisic acid and growth of micropropagated chile ancho pepper (Capsicum annuum) plantlets during acclimatization and post-acclimatization. Journal of Plant Physiology 160: 1073-1083.
12. Gregory, P. T., Simond, L. P., and Pilbeam, C. J. 2000. Soil type, climatic regime and the response of water use efficiency to crop management. Journal of Agricultural Science 92: 814-820.
13. Haji Boland, R., Ali Asgharzadeh, N., and Barzegar, R. 2007. Effect of rice inoculation with two arbuscular mycorrhizal species on growth, P and K absorption and pH changes in rhizosphere. Journal of Soil and Water Sciences 21 (1): 119-129. (in Persian with English abstract).
14. Harrison, M. J. 2005. Signaling in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Annual Review of Microbiology 59:19-42.
15. Hong, Y., Yu, J. M., and Chai, K. C. 1985. Effect of drought stress on major upland crops. Research Report of the Rural Development Administration Crop, Korea Republic (C.F. Computer Res.). International Agricultural Center and International Information 27: 148-155.
16. Howell, T. A. 2001. Enhancing water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture. Journal of Agricultural Science 93: 281-289.
17. Htfield, J. L., Sauer, T. J., and Prueger, J. H. 2001. Managing soils to achieve greater water use efficiency. A Review Journal of Agricultural Science 93: 971-280.
18. Jamshidi, A., Ghalavand, A., Salehi, A., Zare, M., and Jamshidi, A. 2009. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal in yield and yield components and agronomic traits of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 11 (2): 136-142. (in Persian with English abstract).
19. Jouyban, Z., and Moosavi, S. G. 2012. Effect of different irrigation intervals, nitrogen and superabsorbent levels on chlorophyll index, yield and yield components of sesame. Food, Agriculture and Environment 10 (1): 360-364.
20. Kapoor, R., Giri, B., and Mukerji, K. G. 2004. Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer. Bioresource Technology 93: 307-311.
21. Kassab, O. M., El-Noemani, A. A., and El-Zeiny, H. A. 2005. Influence of some irrigation systems and and water regimes on growth and yield of sesame plants. Journal of Agronomy 4 (3): 220-224.
22. Keshavarz, A., and Sadeghzadeh, K. 2000. Water management in agriculture, estimated future demand for drought crisis, current situation, future prospects and strategies to optimize water use. Organization f Agricultural Research, Education and Extension, Jihad-e- Keshavarzi. (in Persian).
23. Koocheki, A., and Khajeh Hosseini, M. 2008. Modern Agronomy. Jihad-e- Daneshgahi Publication, Mashhad, Iran. (in Persian).
24. Kumar, A. S., Prasad, T. N., and Prasad, U. K. 1996. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen on growth, yield/oil content, nitrogen uptake and water-use of summer sesame (Sesamum indicum). Indian Journal of Agronomy 41: 111-115.
25. Mehrabi, Z., and Ehsanzadeh, P. 2011. A study on physiological attributes and grain yield of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars under different soil moisture regimes. Journal of Crops Improvement 13 (2): 75-88. (in Persian with English abstract).
26. Oehl, F., Sieverding, E., Mader, P., Dubois, D., Ineichen, K., Boller, T., and Wiemken, A. 2004. Impact of long-term conventional and organic farming on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Oecologia 138: 574-583.
27. Pinior, A., Grunewaldt-Stocker, G., Von Alten, H., and Strasser, R. J. 2005. Mycorrhizal impact on drought stress tolerance of rose plants probed by chlorophyll fluorescence, proline content and visual scoring. Mycorrhiza 15: 596-605.
28. Rice, R., Datnoff, L., Raid, R., and Sanchez, C. 2002. Influence of vesicular-arbuscular quality in Foenisulum vulgare Mill. on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer. Bioresource Technology 93: 307-311.
29. Richte, J., Stutzer, M., and Schellenberg, I. 2005. Effects of mycorrhization on the essential oil content and composition of aroma components of marjoram (Marjorana hortensis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and ajwain (Trachyspermum carvi L.). 36th International Symposium on Essential Oils, 4-7 September, Budapest, Hungary.
30. Ritchie, J. T., and Basso, B. 2007. Water use efficiency is not constant when crop water supply is adequate or fixed: The role of agronomic management. European Journal of Agronomy 28 (3): 273-281.
31. Sajedi, N. A., and Sajedi, A. 2009. Effect of drought stress, mycorrhiza and zinc rates on agro-physiologic characteristics of maize cv. KSC704. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 11 (3): 202-221. (in Persian with English abstract).
32. Sekhara, B. C., and Reddy, C. R. 1993. Correlation and path coefficient analysis in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Annals of Agricultural Research 14: 178-184.
33. Smith, S. E., and Read, D. J. 1996. Mycorrhizal symbiosis. 2nd Edition, Academic Press, London.
34. Soltani, A., and Faraji, A. 2007. Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations. Jihad-e- Daneshgahi Publication, Mashhad, Iran. (in Persian).
35. Tantawy, M. M., Ouda, S. A., and Khalil, F. A. 2007. Irrigation optimization for different sesame varieties grown under water stress conditions. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 3 (1): 7-12.
36. Tilman, D., Cassman, K. G., Matson, P. A., Naylor, R., and Polaskt, S. 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive protection practices. Nature 418: 671-677.