بررسی عملکرد کمی و کیفی ارقام چغندرقند در تاریخ‌های مختلف کشت مستقیم و نشایی در دو منطقه شیروان و مشهد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی و مقایسه کشت نشایی و کشت مستقیم ارقام مختلف چغندرقند در تاریخ‌های مختلف کاشت، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو منطقه شیروان و مشهد اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل ارقام چغندرقند (دورتی و آناکوندا)، روش کاشت (مستقیم و نشایی) و تاریخ کاشت (15 اردیبهشت و 15 خرداد) بود. صفات کمی و کیفی مانند عملکرد ریشه، وزن برگ، عیار قند، ناخالصی‌های ریشه، میزان شکر ملاس، میزان شکر خالص، عملکرد شکر خالص و ضریب استحصال شکر اندازه‌گیری و محاسبه گردید. نتایج حاصل از این آزمایش بیانگر این بود که کشت چغندرقند در منطقه شیروان در مقایسه با منطقه مشهد از عملکرد بیشتری برخوردار بود. علاوه بر این، بیشترین عملکرد ریشه (34/77 تن در هکتار) و عملکرد شکر خالص (848/9 تن در هکتار) چغندرقند از کشت نشایی در تاریخ کاشت 15 اردیبهشت به‌دست آمد. از نظر میزان ناخالصی‌های ریشه بین دو روش کاشت تفاوت معنی‌داری مشاهده نشد. علاوه بر این، میزان قند قابل استحصال، عیار قند و ضریب استحصال شکر در کشت نشایی بر کشت مستقیم چغندرقند ارجحیت داشت. بررسی نتایج نشان داد که میزان سدیم، پتاسیم و نیتروژن مضره در ریشه چغندرقند با تأخیر در کاشت به میزان 29/26، 24/21 و 42/14 درصد افزایش یافت. در بین ارقام مورد بررسی، رقم آناکوندا از عملکرد ریشه و شکر بیشتری در مقایسه با رقم دورتی برخوردار بود. نتایج بیانگر این بود که بین میزان ناخالصی‌های ریشه و ضریب استحصال شکر، همبستگی منفی معنی‌داری وجود داشت. درمجموع به نظر می‌رسد، کشت نشایی چغندرقند در تاریخ کاشت اردیبهشت‌ماه باعث افزایش عملکرد ریشه و شکر چغندرقند می‌گردد.

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