1. Ahmad, W. R., Hassan, F. H., Ansar, M., Manaf, A., and Sher, A. 2013. Enhancing crop productivity through wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fenugreek intercropping system. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences 23 (1): 210-215.
2. Alizadeh, Y., Koocheki, A., and Nassiri Mahallati, M. 2010. Investigating of growth characteristics, yield, yield components and potential weed control in intercropping of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and vegetative sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Journal of Agroecology 2 (3): 383-397. (in Persian with English abstract).
3. Al-qurashi-Adel, D. S. 2005. Growth and leaf nutrients content of Guava seedling (Psidium guajava L.) Intercropped with some legume cover crops. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Science 36 (3): 109-119.
4. Asadi, G. A., Khorramdel, S., and Hatefi Farajian, M. H. 2016. The effects of row intercropping ratios of chickpea and saffron on their quantitative characteristics and yield. Saffron Agronomy & Technology 4 (2): 93-103. (in Persian with English abstract).
5. Awasthi, U. D., Tripathi, A. K., Dubey, S. D., and Kumar, S. 2011. Effect of row ratio and fertility levels on growth, productivity, competition and economics in chickpea + fennel intercropping system under scarce moisture condition. Journal of Food Legumes 24 (3): 211-214.
6. Banik, B., Midya, A., Sarkar, B. K., and Ghose, S. S. 2006. Wheat and chickpea intercropping systems in an additive series experiment: Advantages and weed smothering. European Journal of Agronomy 24 (4): 325-332.
7. Bigonah, R., Rezvani Moghaddam, R., and Jahan, M. 2014. Effects of intercropping on biological yield, percentage of nitrogen and morphological characteristics of coriander and fenugreek. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 12 (3): 369-377. (in Persian with English abstract).
8. Bindera, A. D., and Thakur, V. S. 2005. Legume intercropping with potato based cropping system at varied fertility levels under high hills dry temperate conditions of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 8: 488-498.
9. Boyie Jalloh, M., Sulaiman Wan Harun, W., Talib, J., Fauzi Ramlan, M., Amartalingam, R., TehBoon Sung, C., and Haruna Ahmed, O. 2009. A simulation model estimates of the intercropping advantage of an immature-rubber, banana and pineapple system. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 (3): 249-254.
10. Carruthers, K., Prithirviraj, B., Clouter, D., Martin, R. C., and Smith, D. L. 2000. Intercropping corn with soybean, lupin and forages: Yield component responses. European Journal Agronomy 12: 103-115.
11. D’Antuono, L. F., Moretti, A., and Lovato, A. F. S. 2002. Seed yield components, oil content and essential oil content and composition of Nigella sativa L. and Nigella damascene L. Industrial Crops and Products 15: 59-69.
12. Dua, V. K., Lal, S. S., and Govindakrishnan, P. M. 2005. Production potential and competition indices in potato + french bean intercropping system in Shimla Hills. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 75: 321-323.
13. Fernandez-Aparicio, M., Emeran, A. A., and Rubiales, D. 2008. Control of Orobanch crenata in legumes for dryland maize-bean intercropping. Tropical Agriculture 78 (1): 8-12.
14. Fujita, K., Ofosu-Budu, K. G., and Ogata, S. 1992. Biological nitrogen fixation in mixed legume-cereal cropping systems 141(1-2): 155-175.
15. Geno, L., and Geno, B. 2001. Polyculture production principles benefits and risks of multiple cropping land management systems for Australia. RIRDC.
16. Gholinezhad, E., and Rezaei- Chiyaneh, E. 2014. Evaluation of grain yield and quality of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) in intercropping with chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 16 (3): 236-249. (in Persian with English abstract).
17. Ghorbani, M., Yazdani, S., and Zare Mirakabad, H. Introduction to sustainable Agriculture (The Economic Approach). 2010. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press, Iran 538pp. (in Persian).
18. Ghosh, P. K. 2004. Growth, yield, competition and economics of groundnut/cereal fodder intercropping systems in the semi-arid tropics of India. Field Crops Research 88: 227-237.
19. Ghosheh, O. A., Houdi, A. A., and Crooks, P. A. 1999. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the pharmacologically active quinones and related compounds in the oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa L.). Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 19 (5): 757-62.
20. Hamzei, J., Seyedi, M., Ahmadvand, G., and Abutalebian, M. A. 2012. The Effect of additive intercropping on weed suppression, yield and yield component of chickpea and barley. Journal of Research Production and Processing of Crops and Horticulture 2 (3): 43-56. (in Persian with English abstract).
21. Jahan, M. 2004. Ecological aspects of intercropping chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L) and marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) with manure. Master thesis of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University, Iran. (in Persian with English abstract).
22. Khorramdel, S., Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., and Ghorbani, R. 2008. Application effects of biofertilizers on the growth indices of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 6 (2): 285-294. (in Persian with English abstract).
23. Khorramdel, S., Siahmarguyee, A., and Mahmoudi, G. H. 2016. Effect of replacement and additive intercropping series of ajowan with bean on yield and yield components. Journal of Crop Production 9 (1): 1- 24. (in Persian with English abstract).
24. Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Deihimfard, R., Mirzaei Talarposhti, R., and Kheirkhah, M. 2014. Evaluating the competitiveness and productivity in a maize-bean intercropping system using some indices. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 12 (4): 535-542. (in Persian with English abstract).
25. Koocheki, A., Zarghani, H., and Norooziyan, A. 2016. Comparison of yield and yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and red bean (Phaseolus calcaratus) under different intercropping arrangements. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 14 (2): 226-243. (in Persian with English abstract).
26. Koocheki, A., Hosseini, M., and Hashemi Dezfouli, A. 1995. Sustainable agriculture. Jahad University Press Mashhad, Iran. 188, pp. (in Persian).
27. Koocheki, A., Lalehgani, B., and Najibnia, S. 2010. Evaluation of productivity in bean and corn intercropping. Iranian Journal of Crop Research 7 (2): 605-614. (in Persian with English abstract).
28. Koocheki, A., Nasiri Mohalati, M., Jahani, M., Boroum Reza Zadeh, Z., and Jafari, L. 2014. Yield responses of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) to intercropping with chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and bean (Phaseoluse vulgaris L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 12 (1): 1-8. (in Persian with English abstract).
29. Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Khorramdel, S., Anvarkhah, M., Teimouri, S., and Sanjani, S. 2010. Evaluation of growth indices of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in intercropping with replacement and additive series. Journal Agroecology 2 (1): 27-36. (in Persian with English abstract).
30. Koocheki, A., Solouki, H., and Karbor, S. 2016. Study of ecological aspects of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) intercropping in weed control. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research 7 (2): 27-44. (in Persian with English abstract).
31. Kumar, A., Singh, R., and Chhillar, R. K. 2006. Nitrogen requirement of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) based cropping systems. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 76 (10): 599-602.
32. Manna, M. C., and Singh, M. V. 2001. Long- term effects of intercropping and bio-litter recycling on soil biological activity and fertility status of subtropical soils. Bioresources Technology 76: 143-150.
33. Mansouri, L., Jamshidi, K. H., Rastgo, M., Saba, J., and Mansouri, H. 2013. The effect of additive intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on yield, yield components and control weeds in Zanjan climatic conditions. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 11 (3): 483-492. (in Persian with English abstract).
34. Mardani, F., and Balouch, H. 2015. Effect of intercropping on the yield and some quantitative and qualitative traits of fenugreek and anise. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production 25 (2): 1-16. (in Persian with English abstract).
35. Mazaheri, D. 1987. Intercropping maize and kale. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science 18 (3,4). (in Persian with English abstract).
36. Mazaheri, D. 1993. Intercropping. Tehran Univ. Publisher. (in Persian).
37. Mirhashemi, S. M., Koocheki, A., Parsa, M., and Nassiri Mahallati, M. 2009. Evaluation benefit of ajowan and fenugreek intercropping indifferent levels of manure and planting pattern. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 7 (1): 259-269. (in Persian with English abstract).
38. Morris, R. A., Villegan, A. N., Polthanee, A., and Centeno, H. S. 1990. Water use by monocropped and intercropped cowpea and sorghum after rice. Agronomy Journal 82: 664-668.
39. Nachigera, G. M., Ledent, J. F., and Draye, X. 2008. Shoot and root competition in potato/maize intercropping: effects on growth and yield. Environmental and Experimental Botany 64 (2): 180-188.
40. Naghipoor Dehkordi, P., Koocheki, A., Nasiri Mohalati, M., and Khorramdel, S. 2015. Effect of combined intercropping on the yield of three medicinal species of black seed (Nigella sativa L.) and borage (Borago officinalis L.) and marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Third National Conference on Medicinal Plants and Sustainable Agriculture. 11 June 2015. (in Persian).
41. Omid Beigi, R. 2011. Production and processing of medicinal plants. Volume 3, Sixth Edition, Astan Quds Razavi Publishing, Mashhad, Iran. (in Persian).
42. Pouramir, F., Nasiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A., and Gorbani, R. 2010. Assessment of sesame and chickpea yield and yield components in the replacement series intercropping. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Research 8 (5): 747-757. (in Persian with English abstract).
43. Putnam, D. H., and Allen, D. L. 1992. Mechanism for over yielding in sunflower-mustard intercrop. Agronomy Journal 84:188-195.
44. Rezaei Chiyaneh, E., Khorramdel, S., and Jamali, M. 2014. Evaluation of Quantitative yield and essential oil content of dill (Anethun graveolens L.) in different intercropping patterns with fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Seed and Plant Improvement Research Institute, Karaj, Iran. 24-26 Agust. (in Persian).
45. Rezaei- Chiyaneh, E., Tajbakhsh, M., Valizadegan, O., and Banaei- Asl, F. 2014. Evaluation of different intercropping patterns of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris L.) in double crop. Journal of Agroecology 5 (4): 426-472. (in Persian with English abstract).
46. Rezaei- chiyaneh, E., Tajbakhsh, M., Jamali, M., and Ghiyasi1, M. 2016. Evaluation of yield and indices advantages at different intercropping patterns of dill (Anethun graveolens L.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Plant Production Technology 8 (1): 15-27. (in Persian with English abstract).
47. Rezaei-Chiyaneh, E., and Gholinezhad, E. 2015. Agronomic characteristics of intercropping of additive series of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). Journal of Agroecology 7 (3): 381-396. (in Persian with English abstract).
48. Rezazadeh, M., Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., and Khorramdel, S. 2016. Effect of intercropping ratios in additive series of fenugreek with tomato cultivars on yield. 9th Horticultural Science Congress, 25-28 Junuary. (in Persian).
49. Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Ahmad Zadeh Motlagh, M. 2007. Effect of sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in Islamabad-Ghayein. Journal Pajouhesh & Sazandegi 20 (3): 62-68. (in Persian with English abstract).
50. Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Moradi, R. 2011. Evaluation of planting dates, intercropping and biological fertilizers on the yield and quality of essential oil of cumin and fenugreek. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Scienc 43 (2): 217-230. (in Persian with English abstract).
51. Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Raoofi, M. R., Rashed Mohassel, M. H., and Moradi, M. 2009. Evaluation of sowing patterns and weed control on mung bean (Vigna radiate L. Wilczek)- black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) intercropping system. Journal of Agroecology 1 (1): 65-79. (in Persian with English abstract).
52. Rostaei, M., Fallah, S., and Abbasi Sorki, A. 2014. Effect of fertilizer sources on growth, yield and yield components of fenugreek intercropped with black cumin. Journal of Crop Production 7 (4): 222-197. (in Persian with English abstract).
53. Sadeghi, S., Rahnavard, A., and Ashrafi, Z. 2005. Effect of planting date and plant density on yield of black cumin. International Journal of Biological Resarch 2 (2): 94-98. (in Persian with English abstract).
54. Sadri, S., Pouryouseforcid, M., Soleimani, A., Barzegar, T., and Jamshidi, Kh. 2015. Evaluation of agronomical traits fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)- fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in intercropping. Iranian Journal of Medicinal lants 45(4): 593-602. (in Persian with English abstract).
55. Sharifi, Y., Aqa Alikhani, M., Modares Sanavi, A. M., and Soroushzadeh, A. 2006. Effect of mixing ratio and plant density on forage production in sorghum mix (Sorghum bicolor) with vigna (Vigna unguiculata). Iranian Agriculture Sciences Journal 1-37 (2): 370-363. (in Persian with English abstract).
56. Solouki, S., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A., and Rezvani Moghaddam, P. 2015. Evaluation of substitution and additive intercropping effect on seed and biological yield of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Second National Conference on Agricultural Engineering and Environment and Sustainable Natural Resources Engineering. 11 March 2015. (in Persian).
57. Tsubo, M., Walker, S., and Mukhala, E. 2001. Comparison of radiation use efficiency of mono-/inter–cropping systems with different row orientations. Field Crops Research 71: 17-29.
58. Vafabakhsh, K., Koocheki, A., and Nassiri Mahallati, M. 2007. Agro-ecosystems health assessment in Mashhad. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 5 (1): 177-184. (in Persian with English abstract).
59. Valizadegan, A. 2015. Study of yield quality and quantity in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and species diversity and relative abundance of insects in row and strip intercropping. Journal of Agricultural Science (University of Tabriz) 25 (3): 15-30. (in Persian with English abstract).
60. Willey, R. W. 1990. Resources use in intercropping systems. Journal of Agriculture Water Management 17: 215-23.
61. Yadav, U. C., Moorthy, K., and Baquer, N. Z. 2004. Effects of sodium-orthovanadate and Trigonella foenumgraecum seed son hepatic and renal lipogenic enzymes and lipid profile during alloxan diabetes. Journal Bio Sciences 29: 81-91.
62. Zargari, A. 1997. Medicinal plants (Vol. 4). Tehran University Publisher, Iran. (in Persian).
63. Zarifpour, N., Taghi Naseri Poor Yazdi, M., and Nasiri Mahallati, M. 2014. Evaluate the Effect of Different Intercropping Arrangements of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) on Quantity and Quality Characterastis of Species. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 12 (1): 34-43. (in Persian with English abstract).
64. Zhang, F., and Li, L. 2003. Using competitive and facilitative interaction in intercropping systems enhances crop productivity nutrient- use efficinency. Plant and Soil 248: 305-312.