ارزیابی عملکرد زیست‌توده و شاخص‌های کارایی نیتروژن و فسفر خرفه (Portulaca oleracea L.) تحت تأثیر کودهای آلی، شیمیایی و زیستی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 گروه کشاورزی، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر کودهای آلی، زیستی و شیمیایی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه خرفه، آزمایشی در سال‌های زراعی 94-1393 و 95-1394 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه بیرجند به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌ کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش بر اساس ترکیبی از چهار منبع تأمین‌کننده نیتروژن شامل: کود گاوی، ورمی‌کمپوست، کود شیمیایی (NPK) و شاهد (بدون اعمال هیچ‌گونه کودی) و نیز چهار نوع کود زیستی شامل: نیتروکسین (شامل ازتوباکتر و آزوسپیریلوم)، میکوریزا Glomus intraradices))، بیوسولفور (شامل تیوباسیلوس) و شاهد (بدون هیچ‌گونه کودی) بودند. نتایج دو ساله برهمکنش منابع کودی نیتروژن و کود زیستی نشان داد که در تیمار کود شیمیایی (NPK) مصرف نیتروکسین موجب افزایش عملکرد زیست‌توده (6/45 درصد)، کارایی زراعی نیتروژن زیست‌توده (52 درصد)، فسفر زیست‌توده (2 برابر)، محتوای فسفر زیست‌توده (8/2 برابر) و مصرف بیوسولفور موجب افزایش نیتروژن زیست‌توده (9/52 درصد)، محتوای نیتروژن زیست‌توده (2 برابر)، کارایی جذب نیتروژن (1/2 برابر) نسبت به شاهد (عدم مصرف هیچ کودی) شد. در تیمار کود گاوی مصرف نیتروکسین موجب افزایش کارایی فیزیولوژیک زیست‌توده (8 درصد) و در تیمار عدم مصرف کود آلی و شیمیایی استفاده از نیتروکسین موجب افزایش کارایی جذب فسفر (4/22 درصد) و استفاده از میکوریزا و بیوسولفور (به‌ترتیب 9/29 و 4/21 درصد) موجب افزایش کارایی فیزیولوژیک فسفر زیست‌توده نسبت به شاهد (عدم مصرف هیچ کودی) شد. همچنین مصرف منابع کودی نیتروژن موجب کاهش کارایی زراعی فسفر زیست‌توده نسبت به شاهد شد. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش، جهت دستیابی به حداکثر عملکرد زیست‌توده و با در نظر گرفتن حداکثر کارایی مصرف فسفر و نیتروژن زیست‌توده استفاده از تیمار کود شیمیایی (NPK) و نیتروکسین در منطقه بیرجند توصیه می‌شود.

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