ارزیابی صفات مورفولوژی و عملکرد گیاه دارویی مرزه بختیاری تحت تاثیر تراکم و کودهای آلی در شرایط دیم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم باغبانی و زراعی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 بخش گیاهان دارویی و محصولات فرعی، مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

3 گروه زراعت، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران

4 مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی صفات مورفولوژیک و عملکرد گیاه دارویی مرزه بختیاری (Satureja bachtiarica) تحت تاثیر کودهای آلی و تراکم‌های مختلف در شرایط دیم، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات مرتع همند دماوند در سال‌های زراعی 1397-1396 انجام شد. کود آلی شامل سه سطح کود دامی پوسیده 30 تن در هکتار، کاه گندم فرآوری شده با سولفات آمونیوم10 تن در هکتار و شاهد (بدون کود) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و تراکم بوته شامل سه سطح تراکم 26666 و 40000 و 80000 بوته در هکتار به‌عنوان عامل فرعی محسوب گردید. صفات اندازه‌گیری شده شامل ارتفاع بوته، سطح تاج پوشش، تعداد شاخه اصلی، عملکرد ماده خشک اندام‌های هوایی، درصد وزن خشک نسبت به وزن تر گیاه و درصد رطوبت نسبت به خاک خشک در عمق‌های 0-20 و 20-40 سانتی‌متر بود. نتایج بیانگر تفاوت معنی‌دار تیمارها در صفات اندازه‌گیری شده بود. در میان صفات اندازه‌گیری شده اثر کود آلی و تراکم بر ارتفاع بوته،سطح تاج پوشش، تعداد شاخه‌های اصلی، عملکرد ماده خشک در سطح 1% معنی‌دار شد. بررسی اثر متقابل سال، کود آلی و تراکم نشان داد، بیشترین عملکرد ماده خشک اندام‌های هوایی (426 کیلوگرم در هکتار) مربوط به مصرف کود دامی و تراکم زیاد در سال دوم و بیشترین مقدار ارتفاع بوته و تعداد شاخه اصلی به‌ترتیب 34 سانتی‌متر و 29 عدد در تیمار کود دامی و سال دوم مشاهده گردید. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد درک موفقیت در استقرار و تحمل کامل گیاه در شرایط دیم به‌واسطه صفات اندازه‌گیری شده و نیز رطوبت بسیار کم خاک در برداشت محصول سرشاخه گلدار، با متوسط بارندگی حدود 340 میلی‌متر در سال و استفاده از کود دامی و تراکم زیاد می‌تواند به افزایش عملکرد اقتصادی گیاه مرزه بختیاری در سال دوم کشت، منجرگردد. 

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