بررسی عملکرد و راندمان مصرف آب در گیاه دارویی چای ترش (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) در منطقه مشهد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه اگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی عملکرد و راندمان مصرف آب در گیاه دارویی چای ترش (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 94-1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به‌صورت کرت‌های نواری در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی عبارت بودند از: مدیریت تغذیه به‌عنوان فاکتور افقی (کود شیمیایی، کودگاوی، کود گاوی+کود شیمیایی و شاهد) و مدیریت آبیاری به‌عنوان فاکتور عمودی (30، 70 و 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه چای ترش). نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که بیشترین ارتفاع بوته (68/84 سانتی‌متر)، تعداد شاخه جانبی (56/6 عدد)، عملکرد خشک غوزه (1/860 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، زیست‌توده (7197 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، شاخص برداشت و حداکثر راندمان مصرف آب به‌ازای عملکرد غوزه و زیست‌توده (به‌ترتیب 11/0 و 89/0 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) گیاه در شرایط کاربرد تلفیقی کود گاوی+کود شیمیایی مشاهده شد. تأمین 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه باعث حصول حداکثر ارتفاع گیاه (46/91)، تعداد غوزه‌ی شاخه اصلی و جانبی (به‌ترتیب 06/20 و 50/47 عدد)، عملکرد غوزه (7/672 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و زیست‌توده (6944 کیلوگرم در هکتار) شد. نتایج اثرات متقابل حاکی از آن بود که مصرف هم‌زمان کود گاوی و شیمیایی با تأمین 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه توانست تعداد شاخه جانبی، عملکرد غوزه خشک و زیست‌توده را به بالاترین مقدار افزایش دهد. حداکثر راندمان مصرف آب به‌ازای عملکرد غوزه و زیست‌توده (18/0 و 49/1 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) با مصرف تلفیقی کود گاوی+شیمیایی به همراه تأمین 30 درصد نیاز آبی حاصل شد. به‌طورکلی، نتایج حاکی از آن بود که مصرف تلفیقی منابع تغذیه‌ای و تأمین 100 درصدی نیاز آبی گیاه اکثر صفات گیاه چای‌ترش را بهبود بخشید.

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