تأثیر کودهای آلی، زیستی و شیمیایی بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و درصد روغن خرفه (Portulaca oleracea L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 گروه کشاورزی، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر کودهای آلی، زیستی و شیمیایی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد خرفه، آزمایشی در سال‌های زراعی 94-1393 و 95-1394 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه بیرجند به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش بر اساس ترکیبی از چهار منبع تأمین‌کننده نیتروژن شامل: کود گاوی، ورمی‌کمپوست، کود شیمیایی (NPK) و شاهد (بدون اعمال هیچ‌گونه کودی) و نیز چهار نوع کود زیستی شامل: نیتروکسین (شامل ازتوباکتر و آزوسپیریلوم)، میکوریزا Glomus intraradices))، بیوسولفور (شامل تیوباسیلوس همراه با گوگرد) و شاهد (بدون هیچ‌گونه کودی) بودند. نتایج تجزیه مرکب دو ساله داده‌ها نشان داد که اثر کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه (به‌جز شاخص برداشت) معنی‌دار بود. بیشترین ارتفاع بوته (2/49 سانتی‌متر)، تعداد کپسول در بوته (2/351 کپسول)، وزن هزار دانه (41/0 گرم) از تیمار کود شیمیایی (NPK) و بیشترین عدد کلروفیل متر (2/34)، تعداد دانه در کپسول (4/45 دانه) و بیشترین درصد روغن از ورمی‌کمپوست (6/14 گرم) حاصل شد. همچنین، بیشترین عملکرد دانه (3/1959 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، عملکرد خشک زیست‌توده (4/9782 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد روغن (6/277 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از تیمار کود شیمیایی (NPK) حاصل شد که تفاوت معنی‌داری با کود گاوی نداشت. اثر کود زیستی نیز بر تعداد کپسول در بوته، تعداد دانه در کپسول، وزن هزار دانه و درصد روغن معنی‌دار بود اما اثر سایر صفات تحت تأثیر این تیمار واقع نشد. بیشترین تعداد کپسول در بوته (3/355 کپسول) و وزن هزار دانه (41/0 گرم) از میکوریزا، بیشترین تعداد دانه در کپسول (43 دانه) و درصد روغن (6/14 گرم) از بیوسولفور حاصل شد. برهمکنش کودهای آلی و شیمیایی نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد خشک زیست توده از تیمار کود شیمیایی (NPK) و کودهای زیستی نیتروکسین (1/10670 کیلو‌گرم در هکتار) و بیوسولفور (7/10306 کیلو‌گرم در هکتار) و بیشترین درصد روغن از تیمار شاهد و بیوسولفور (4/15 درصد) حاصل شد. بر اساس نتایج دوساله این تحقیق، در راستای کشاورزی پایدار و به‌منظور کاهش مصرف نهاده‌های شیمیایی جایگزین نمودن کود گاوی با کود شیمیایی (NPK) جهت تولید حداکثر دانه و روغن خرفه در منطقه بیرجند توصیه می‌گردد.

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