تاثیرکم آبیاری برعملکرد، کارآیی مصرف آب و درصد ماده خشک غده ارقام سیب زمینی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 فردوسی مشهد

3 ملی آذربایجان -باکو

چکیده

سیب زمینی جزو محصولات زراعی با نیاز آبی بالا بوده و به تنش رطوبتی حساس است. کم آبیاری یک راهکار سودمند مدیریت آب در شرایط محدودیت آب آبیاری محسوب می شود. دراین تحقیق تاثیر تیمارهای کم آبیاری برکارآیی مصرف آب و درصد ماده خشک غدة 10 رقم سیب زمینی دریک آزمایش کرت های خرد شده بر پایة طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی و در دو فصل زراعی بررسی شد. عامل اصلی سه تیمار آبیاری و عامل فرعی 10 رقم سیب زمینی بودند. در تنش آبی ملایم بیشترین و کمترین مقدار عملکرد غده قابل فروش به ترتیب در ارقام خاوران و دراگا و کمترین درصد کاهش نسبت به آبیاری کامل در رقم کایزر به دست آمد. در تنش آبی شدید بیشترین و کمترین مقدار عملکرد غده قابل فروش به ترتیب در ارقام ساتینا و دراگا و کمترین درصد در رقم کایزر به دست آمد. کارآیی مصرف آب در هردو شرایط تیمار کم آبیاری بیشتر از شرایط آبیاری کامل بود. بین ارقام مختلف سیب زمینی از نظر کارآیی مصرف آب در هر سه تیمار آبیاری تفاوت های معنی داری مشاهده گردید. بیشترین و کمترین کارآیی مصرف آب در تنش آبی شدید در ارقام ساتینا و مارفونا ( به ترتیب 88/5 و24/2 کیلو گرم بر متر مکعب آب) به دست آمد. بیشترین و کمترین ماده خشک به ترتیب در ارقام ساوالان (66/23 درصد) و دراگا ( 18 درصد) حاصل گردید. بنابراین در مواقعی که کمبود آب وجود دارد استفاده از رقم ساتینا مقرون به صرفه تر بوده و در مواردی که آب کافی در دسترس بوده و تولید محصول با درصد بالایی از مادة خشک غده مورد نظر باشد کشت رقم ساوالان توصیه می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


  1. Akhavan, S., Mousavi, F., Mostsfazadehfard, M., and Ghadami Firouzabadi, A. 2007. Furrow and tape irrigation effects on potato yield and water use efficiency. Agriculture and Natural Resources Sciences and Technologies. 11 (41): 16-26. (in Persian with English abstract).
  2. Alizadeh, A. 2010. Relations between Water, Soil and Plant. Astane Ghodse Razavi Press. (in Persian).
  3. Allen, E. J and Scott, R. K. 1992. Principles of agronomy and their application in the potato industry. PP 816-882. in: P. Harris ed. Potato Crop. Chapman and Hall Ltd, London.
  4. Allen, R., Pereira, L. A., Raes, D. and Smith, M. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage, Paper No. 56. FAO, Rome, Italy.
  5. Alva, A. K., Moore, A. D and Collins, H. P. 2012. Impact of deficit irrigation on tuber yield and quality of potato cultivars. Journal ofCrop Improvement 26: 211-227.
  6. Ati, A. S., Iyada, A. D. and Najim, S. M. 2012. Water use efficiency of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under different irrigation methods and potassium fertilizer rates. Annals of Agricultural Science 57: 99-103.
  7. Ayas, S., Korukcu, A., 2010. Water-yield relationships in deficit irrigated potato. Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Uludang University 24: 23-36.
  8. Badr, M. A. El-Tohamy, W. A. and Zaghloul, A. M. 2012. Yield and water use efficiency of potato grown under different irrigation and nitrogen levels in an arid region. Agricultural water Management 110: 9-15.
  9. Baghani, J., 2009. Effect of planting pattern and water quantity on potato cultivation with drip irrigation in Mashhad. Journal of Water and Soil 23 (1): 153-159. (in Persian with English abstract).
  10. Bahramloo, R., Nasseri, A., 2010. Effect of deficit irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of potato cultivar Sante. Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage 1(4): 90-98. (in Persian with English abstract).
  11. Beukema, H. P. and van der Zaag, D. E. 1990. Introduction to Potato Production. PUDOC. Wageningen, the Netherlands.
  12. Cabello, R., Monneveux, P., De Mendiburu, F. and Bonierbale, M. 2012. Comparison of yield based drought tolerance indices in improved varieties, genetic stocks and landraces of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Euphytica 193: 147-156.
  13. Cantore, V., Wassar, F., Yamac, S. S., Sellami, M. H., Albrizio, R., Stellacci, A. M. and Todorovic, M. 2014. Yield and water use efficiency of early potato grown under different irrigation regimes. International Journal of Plant Production 8: 409-428.
  14. De Wit, C. T. 1958. Transpiration and crop yields modeling. Institute voor Biologisch en Scheikundig, Onderzoek van Landbou Wgewassen, Wageningen No.59.
  15. Doorenbos, J. and Pruitt, W. O. 1977. Guidelines for predicting crop water requirement. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 24, FAO, Rome, Italy.
  16. Erdem, T.,Erdem, Y., Orta, H. and Okursoy, H. 2006. Water yield relationship of potato under different irrigation methods and regimes. Scientific Agriculture 63: 226-231.
  17. Eskandari, A., Khazaie, H.R., Nezami, A., Kafi, M. 2011a. Study the effects of irrigation regimes on physiological characteristics of three cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Journal of Water and Soil 25 (2): 240-247. (in Persian with English abstract).
  18. Eskandari, A., Khazaie, H.R., Nezami, A., Kafi, M., Majdabadi, A., 2011b. Study the effects of irrigation regimes on physiological characteristics, yield and water use efficiency of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Mashhad climate. Journal of Horticulture Sciences 25 (2): 201-210. (in Persian with English abstract).
  19. Fabeiro, C., Martin de Santa Olalla, F. and de Juan, J. A. 2001. Yield and size of deficit irrigated potatoes. Agricultural water Management 46: 255-266.
  20. Ferreira, T. C. and Goncalves, D. A. 2007. Crop-yield/water-use production functions of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown under differential nitrogen treatments in a hot, dry climate. Agricultural Water Management 90:45-55.
  21. FAO Statistical Database. Agriculture statistics. 2013. Retrived on 14 November 2015 from www.http:// URL: faostat, fao.org/faostat.
  22. Foti, S., Mauromicale, G. and Irna, A. 1995. Influence of irrigation regimes on growth and yield of potato cultivar Spunta. Potato Research 38: 307-318.
  23. Fulai, L., Shahnazari, A., Anderson, M. N., Jacobsen, S. E. and Jensen, C. R. 2006. Effects of deficit irrigation and partial root drying on gas exchange, biomass partitioning and water use efficiency in potato. Scientific Horticulture 109: 113-117.
  24. Ghadami Firouzabadi, A. Parvizi, Kh. 2010. The effect of deficit irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of new clones of potato in drip tape irrigation. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture 24: 133-144. (in Persian with English abstract).
  25. Hassan, A. A., Sarkar, A. A., Ali, M. H. and Karim, N. N. 2002. Effect of deficit irrigation at different growth stages on the yield of potato. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 5: 128-134.
  26. Hassanpanah, D. 2010. Evaluation of potato advanced cultivars against water deficit stress under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Biotechnology 9: 164-169.
  27. Hassanpanah, D., K. Nikshad and M. Hassani. 2008. Potato tuber production. Jahade Keshavarzi Ardabil. Extention Bulletin No. 34. (in Persian).
  28. Haverkort, A. J. and Mackerron, D. K. L. 1995. Potato Ecology and Modeling of Crops Under Conditions Limiting Growth. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
  29. Haverkort, A. J., van de Waart, M. and Bodaeader, K. B. A. 1990. The effect of early drought stress on numbers of tubers and stolones of potato in controlled and field conditions. Potato Research 33: 89-96
  30. Heydari Pour, R., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A., Zare Feize Abadi, A. 2014. The effect of different levels of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on productivity and efficiency in corn (Zea mays L.), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Journal of Agroecology 2: 187- 198. (in Persian with English abstract).
  31. Heydari, N. 2011. Determination and evaluation of water use efficiency of some major crops under farmers management in Iran. Journal of Water and Irrigation Management 2: 43-57. (in Persian with English abstract).
  32. Iwama, K. and Yamaguchi, J. 2006. Abiotic stresses. PP 231-278 in: S. M. Gopal and P. Khurana, eds, Handbook of Potato Production, Improvement and Post-Harvest Management. Food Production, New York.
  33. Kafi, M., Borzoee, A., Salehi, M., Kamandi, A., Masoumi, A., and Nabati, J. 2012 (2nded.). Physiology of Environmental Stresses in Plants. Jahad-e- Daneshgahi Press. Mashhad (in Persian).
  34. Kashyap, P. S. and Panda, R. K. 2001. Evaluation of evapotranspiration estimation methods and development of crop-coefficient for potato crop in a sub-humid region. Agricultural Water Management 50: 9-25.
  35. Mackerron, D. K. L. and Jefferies, R. A. 1986. The influence of early soil moisture stress on tuber numbers in potato. Potato Research 29: 299-312.
  36. Mackerron, D. K. L. and Jefferies, R. A. 1994. Seasonal and ontogenetic changes in water use efficiency in potato as indicated by isotope discrimination. Aspects of Applied Biology 38: 101-111.
  37. Miller, D. E. and Martin, M. W. 1987. The effect of irrigation regime and subsoiling on yield and quality of three potato cultivars. American Potato Journal 64: 17-26.
  38. Minhas, J. S. and Bansal, K. C. 1991. Tuber yield in relation to water stress at different stages of growth in potato. Journal of Indian Potato 18: 1-8.
  39. Ministry of Agricultural Jahad, 2014. Crops and Livestock Statistics, 2013-2014. available athttp://www.agrijahad.ir (in Persian).
  40. Mortazavibak, A., Aminpour, R., Mousavi, S. F. 2008. Effects of deficit irrigation at early growth stages on yield of commercial potato cultivars. Iranian Journal of Horticulture Science and Technology 9(1): 1-10. (in Persian with English abstract).
  41. Nagaz, K., Masmoudi, M. M., Mechlia, N. B. 2007. Soil salinity and yield of drip –irrigated potato under different irrigation regimes with saline water in arid conditions of Southern Tunisia. Journal of Agronomy 6 (2): 324-330.
  42. Onder, S., Caliskan, M. E., Onder, D. and Caliskan, S. 2005. Different irrigation methods and water stress effects on potato yield and yield components. Agricultural Water Management 73: 73-86.
  43. Shahnazari A., Ahmadia S. H., Laerke P. E., Liu, F. and Plauborg, F. 2008. Nitrogen dynamics in the soil-plant system under deficit and partial root-zone drying irrigation strategies in potatoes. European Journal of Agronomy 28: 65-73.
  44. Sharma, N., Rawal, S., Kadian, M. S., Arya, S., Bonierbale, M. and Singh, B. P. 2014. Evaluation of advanced potato clones for drought tolerance in arid zone in Rajasthan, Indian Potato Journal 41: 189-195.
  45. Shayan Nejad, M., Moharrery, A., 2010. Effects of water stress on qualitative properties of wheat and potato in Shahrekord. Iranian Journal of Water Research in Agriculture (Formerly Soil and Water Sciences) 24 (1): 65-71. (in Persian with English abstract).
  46. Shi, Sh., Fan, M., Iwama, K., Li, F., Zhang, Z. and Jia, L. 2015. Physiological basis of drought tolerance in potato grown under long-term water deficiency. International Journal of Plant Production 9: 305-320.
  47. Sobhani, A. R., Hamidi, H. 2013. Effects of water deficit stress and potassium on yield and water use efficiency of potato by the source sprinkler irrigation. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences 6 (1):1-15 (in Persian with English abstract).
  48. Ta, J., Kaushik, S. K., Minhas, J. S.and Bhardwaj, V. 2003. The Potato Breeding for Biotic and Abiotic Stress. New Dehli, Mehta.
  49. Unlu, M., Kanber, R., Senyigit, U., Onaran, H. and Diker, K. 2006. Trickle and sprinkler irrigation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in the Middle Anatolian Region in Turkey. Agricultural water Management 79: 43-71.
  50. van Loon, C. D. 1981. The effect of water stress on potato growth, development and yield. American Potato Journal 58: 51-69.
  51. Wang, F., Kang, Y., Liu, S. and Hou, X. 2007. Effects of soil matric potential on potato growth under drip irrigation in the North China Plain. Agricultural Water Management 88: 34-42.
  52. Wright, J. L. and Stark, J. C. 1990. Potato. PP 211-247 in: B. A. Stewart, and D. R. Neilsen eds. Irrigation of Agricultural Crops. Agronomy Monograph No.30. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
  53. Yarnia, M., Khorshidi, M. B., Nasseri, A., Hassanpanah, D. 2011. Drought stress effects in different growth stages on potato cultivars. In Conference on Ecology, Microbiology and Biotechnology Problems, Baku, Azerbaijan Republic, 7: 384-392.
  54. Yuan, B-Z., Nishiyama, S. and Kang, Y. 2003. Effect of different drip irrigation regimes on the growth and yield of drip-irrigated potato. Agricultural Water Management 63: 153 – 167.
  55. Zhang, H., Wang, X., You, M. and Liu, C. 1999. Water yield relations and water use efficiency of winter wheat in North China Plain. Irrigation Science 19: 37-45.