بررسی اثر کود نیتروژنه و سطوح آبیاری بر عملکرد و برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی گندم تحت آبیاری قطره‌ای

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

2 گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

چکیده

کم‌آبیاری یک راهبرد مطلوب است که می‌تواند کارآیی مصرف آب را در محصولات زراعی افزایش دهد. در چنین شرایطی تعیین سطح  بهینه مصرف کود نیتروژن بسیار حائز اهمیت می‌باشد. در مطالعه حاضر اثر سطوح مختلف آبیاری به میزان 60، 80، 100 و120 درصد به‌عنوان کرت اصلی و تیمارهای کود نیتروژنه به میزان 50، 75، 100 و 125 درصد نیاز ازته گیاه براساس نتایج آزمون خاک به‌عنوان کرت فرعی بر عملکرد گندم رقم پیشگام در قالب آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سال زراعی 98-1397مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین و کمترین عملکرد دانه به‌ترتیب در تیمارهای تأمین ۱۲۰ درصد با 6498 کیلوگرم در هکتار و 60 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه با 4933 کیلوگرم در هکتار (حدود 24 درصد کاهش در مقایسه با تیمار فوق) حاصل شد. بیشترین میزان کارآیی مصرف آب در تیمار تأمین 60 درصد مصرف نیاز آبی گیاه با تأمین 100 درصدی مصرف نیتروژن به‌دست آمد (08/3 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب). بیشترین و کمترین مقدار کارآیی زراعی کود نیتروژن به‌ترتیب در تیمارهای آبیاری 100 درصد نیاز آبی و تأمین 75 درصد نیازکودی (79 کیلوگرم دانه بر کیلوگرم کود نیتروژنه مصرفی) و تیمار تأمین 120 درصد نیاز آبی و 100 درصد نیازکودی (9 کیلوگرم بر کیلوگرم) مشاهده شد. با کاهش آب مصرفی میزان انتقال مجدد مواد ذخیره‌ای ازساقه به دانه‌ها افزایش یافت. بیشترین غلظت کلروفیل نیز مربوط به سطح تیماری تأمین 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه و تیمار100 درصدی مصرف کود نیتروژنه بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات



  1. Afkari, A. 2018. Effects of drought stress and nitrogen fertilizer rate on some physiological characteristics, essential oil percentage, and yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum ). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 33 (6): 1047-105.doi: 10.22092/ijmapr.2018.112686.2085.
  2. Akhavan, 2015. The application of drip irrigation system (Tape) in wheat cultivation. Extension Manual, Number 83: 201.
  3. Al-Ghzawi, A., Khalaf, Y., Al-Ajlouni, Z., AL-Quraan, N., Musallam, I., and Hani, N. J. A. 2018. The effect of supplemental irrigation on canopy temperature depression, chlorophyll content, and water use efficiency in three wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum Desf.) varieties grown in dry regions of jordan. Agriculture 8 (5): 1-23.
  4. Baradaran Firoz Abadi, M., Elahian Noughabi, M., Rahimzadeh, F., Moghadam, M., Ranji, Z., and Rarsaeian, M. 2004. Effect of deferent levels of continuous water strees on quantity and quantity of tree sugar beet lins, Journal of Suger beet 19 (2): 133-144.
  5. Bole, J. B., and Dubetz, S. 2006. Effect of irrigiation and nitrogen fertilizer on the yield and protein content of soft white spring wheat. Canadian. Journal of Plant Science 66: 281-289. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps86-041.
  6. Dordas, C. A., and Sioulas, C. 2008. Safflower yield, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency response to nitrogen fertilization under rained conditions. Industrial Crops and Products 27 (1): 75- 85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2007.07.020.
  7. Ebertseder, T., R. Guster, U. Hege, R. Brandhuber and Schmidhalter, U. 2003. Strategies for site-specific nitrogen fertilization with respect to long-term environmental demands. In: Proceeding of the 4th European Conference on Precision Agriculture. J. V. Stafford (Ed.). Wageningen Academic Publishers. The Netherlands.
  8. El-Gendy, A. G., Gohary, E. l., Omer, E. A., Hendawy, S. F., and Hussein, M. S. 2015. Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer on herbage and oil yield of chervil plant (Anthriscus cerefolium). Industrial Crops and Products 69: 167-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.02.023.
  9. Garrido-Lestache, E., Lopez-Bellido, R. J., and Lopez-Bellido, L. 2005. Durum wheat quality Under Mediterranean conditions as affected by N rate, timing and splitting, N form and S fertilization. European Journal of Agronomy 23: 265-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2004.12.001.
  10. Ghobadi, R., Shirkhani, A., and Jalilian, A. 2015. Effects of water steres and nitrogen fertilizer on yield, itacomponents, water and nitrogen use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L.) CV. SC. 704. Applied Field Crops Reserch (Pajouhesh and Sazandegi) 28 (106): 79-87.
  11. Gholinezhad, 2014. Effect of water deficit stress, different rates of nitrogen and plant density on remobilization, current photosynthesis and grain yield in sunflower. Journal of Oil Plant Production (1): 44-63.
  12. Guadra, G., Padovan, S., and Delogu, G. 2004. Grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and baking quality of old and modern Italian bread- wheat cultivar s grown at different nitrogen levels. European Journal of Agronomy 21: 181-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2003.08.001.
  13. Gonzalez, A., Bermjo, V., and Gimeno, B. S. 2010. Effect of different physiological traits on grain yield in barley grown under irrigated and terminal water deficit conditions. Journal of Agricultural Science 148: 319-328. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859610000031.
  14. Hatfield, J. L., and Prueger, J. H. 2004. Nitrogen over-use, under-use, and efficiency. In Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress (Vol. 26).
  15. Fan, J., Wu, L., Zhang, F., Yan, S., and Xiang, Y. 2017. Evaluation of drip fertigation uniformity affected by injector type, pressure difference and lateral layout. Irrigation and Drainage 66 (4): 520-529. https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.2136.
  16. Fatih, H. 2010. Effect of nitrogen and zinc fertilizers on physiological characteristics of two barley cultivars in autumn, under drought stress conditions. Master Thesis in Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan.
  17. Fooladvand, H. R., Niazi, J. A., Shirazi Agriculture, H. and Jokar, L. 2006. Interaction of different amounts of irrigation and nitrogen on wheat yield. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Twelfth Year, 4: 786-779.
  18. Forouzi, M., Ehteshami, M. R., Isfahani, M. and Rabiee, m. 2016. Study of dry matter remobilization rate and current photosynthesis in different seed sizes of four wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum ). Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Research 3 (1): 61-47.
  19. Jafarinejadi, A. R., Moezi, A. A. A., Mousavi Fazl, S. M. H. and Sayyad, Gh. A. 2011. The efficiency of different types of nitrogen fertilizers and wheat yield. Journal of Agriculture 33 (2): 91-100.
  20. Hong, W. P., Lielei, M., Yongqing, Q. I., Xingran, L., Yugui, J., Yanjun, Sh., and Changming, L. 2017. Impact of varied irrigation on field water budegts crops yields in the North china plain: Rainfed vs. irrigation double cropping system. Agricuture Water Management 190: 42-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2017.05.007.
  21. Hosseini, R., Gashi, S., Soltani, A., Kalateh, M., and zahed. M. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Nitrogen Consumption Indices in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Research 11 (2): 300-306.
  22. Kirigwi, F. M., M. Van Ginkel, R. Trethowan, R. G. Sears, S. Rajaram, and G. M. Paulsen. 2004. Evaluation of selection strategies for wheat adaptation across water regimes. Euphytica 135: 361-371. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EUPH.0000013375.66104.04.
  23. Ma, S. C., Wang, T. C., Guan, X. K., and Zhan, X. 2018. Effect of sowing time and seeding rate on yield components and water use efficiency of irrigated wheat by regulating the growth redundancy and physiological traits of root and shoot. Field Crops Research 221: 166-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2018.02.028.
  24. Majidian, M., Ghalavand, A., Karimian, N., and Kamgar haghighi, A. A. 2008. Effects of nitrogen different amounts, manure and irrigation water on yield and yield components of corn. Eleectronic Journal of Crop Production 1 (2): 67-85.
  25. Mirzakhani, M. 2019. Response of nitrogen use efficiency and agronomic characteristics of irrigated wheat to rate, time and method of nitrogen application. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 50 (2): 77-87. Doi: 22059/ijfcs.2018.245329.654402.
  26. Papakosta, D. K., and Gagianas, A. A. 1991. Nitrogen and dry matter accumulation, remobilization, and losses for Mediterranean wheat during grain filling. Crop Science Society of America, Agronomy Journal 83: 864-870. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1991.00021962008300050018x.
  27. Paredes, P., Pereira, L. S., Rodrigues, G. C., Botelho, N., and Torres, M. O. 2017. Using the FAO dual crop coefficient approach to model water use and productivity of processing pea (Pisum sativum) as influenced by irrigation strategies. Agricultural Water Management 189: 5-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2017.04.010.
  28. Pouri, K., Siosemardeh, A., Sohrabi, Y., and Soltani, A. 2019. Crop phenotyping for wheat yield and yield components against drought stress. Cereal Research Communications 47: 383-393. https://doi.org/10.1556/0806.47.2019.05.
  29. Rajala, A., Hakala, K., Kela, P. M., Muurinen, S., and Peltonen-Sainio, P. 2009. Spring wheat response to timing of water deficit through sink and grain filling capacity. Field Crops Research 114: 27-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2009.08.007.
  30. Recous, S., and J. M. Machet. 2019. Short term immobilization and crop uptake of fertilizer nitrogen applied to irrigated wheat: Effect of date application in spring. Plant and Soil 206: 137-149. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004377006602.
  31. Shi, S., Zhou, S., Yin, J., Li, Q., Zhang, Y., Cheng, M., and Zhang, C. 2013. Effects of water and fertilizer coupling on photosynthetic characteristics in flag leaves and yield of irrigated wheat under high yield condition. Journal of Triticeae Crops 33 (3): 549-554.
  32. Si, Z., Zain, M., Mehmood, F., Wang, G., Gao, Y., and Duan, A. 2020. Effects of nitrogen application rate and irrigation regime on growth, yield, and water-nitrogen use efficiency of drip-irrigated irrigated wheat in the North China Plain. Agricultural Water Management 231: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106002.
  33. Tahmasebi Sarvestani, Z., Rouhi, A., and Secondary teacher, S., and M. 2011. Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Yield of Dryland Wheat Genotypes under Supplementary Irrigation Conditions, Iranian Journal of Crop 3 (1): 47-55
  34. Timsina, T., Singh, U., Badaruddin, M., Meisner, C., and Amin, M. R. 2001. Cultivar, nitrogen, and water effects on productivity, and nitrogen-use efficiency and balance for rice–wheat sequences of Bangladesh. Field Crop Research 72: 143-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(01)00171-X.
  35. Yan, S., Wu, Y., Fan, J., Zhang, F., Qiang, S., Zheng, J., and Zou, H. 2019. Effects of water and fertilizer management on grain filling characteristics, grain weight and productivity of drip-fertigated irrigated wheat. Agricultural Water Management 213: 983-995. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2018.12.019.
  36. Zheng, J., Fan, J., Zhang, F., Yan, S., and Xiang, Y. 2018. Rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss by maize canopy on the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. Agricultural Water Management 195: 25-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2017.09.013.