اثر مدیریت نظام زراعی بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و شاخص تنوع علف‌های هرز در تولید سیب‌زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران


به‌منظور بررسی تاثیر روش‌های مدیریت مختلف زراعی بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و شاخص تنوع علف‌های هرز در مزرعه سیب‌زمینی (Solanum tuberosum)، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در دو سال زراعی 95-1394 و 96-1395 در اراضی شرکت ران- فیروزکوه واقع در شهرستان فیروزکوه اجرا شد. عامل کرت اصلی چهار نظام زراعی شامل 1- پرنهاده، 2- متوسط نهاده، 3- کم نهاده و 4- اکولوژیک (عدم استفاده از کود شیمیایی (تأمین عناصر غذایی مورد نیاز گیاه از طریق کاربرد کمپوست به میزان 60 تن در هکتار،آماده‌سازی زمین با استفاده از کارگر و بیل دستی انجام شد). مدیریت علف‌های هرز در دو سطح وجین و عدم وجین به‌عنوان عامل کرت فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین میزان وزن تک غده و محتوای نیتروژن غده به‌ترتیب با 6/87 گرم و 34/1 درصد، همچنین بیشترین تعداد غده (6/6)، وزن غده در تک بوته (653 گرم)، وزن غده در متر مربع (57/4 کیلوگرم)، عملکرد (45710 کیلوگرم) و محتوای نیتروژن ساقه و برگ سیب‌زمینی (41/1 درصد) در تیمار نظام پرنهاده و وجین علف‌های هرز گزارش شد. از طرف دیگر، بیشترین میزان شاخص تنوع شانون-وینر (32/1) و درصد نیتروژن علف‌های هرز (36/2 درصد) به‌ترتیب از نظام‌های اکولوژیک و پرنهاده به‌دست آمد. به‌طور کلی، با در نظر گرفتن خصوصیات عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد، نظام کشت پرنهاده و وجین علف‌های هرز به‌عنوان تیمار برتر توصیه می‌شود.



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