ارزیابی جوانه‌زنی و قدرت بذر سویا (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) حاصل از ارقام و تاریخ‌کاشت‌های مختلف در گرگان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی جوانه‌زنی و قدرت بذر سویا حاصل از تاریخ کاشت‌های مختلف، آزمایش مزرعه‌ای به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان در سال زراعی 1390 انجام شد. عامل اصلی شامل پنج تاریخ کاشت 31 فروردین، 23 اردیبهشت، 13 خرداد، 8 تیر و 31 تیر و عامل فرعی شامل سه رقم سویا ویلیامز، سحر و دی‌پی‌ایکس بود. برای ارزیابی کیفیت بذر از آزمون‌های جوانه‌زنی و قدرت بذر شامل آزمون پیری تسریع شده، سرعت رشد گیاهچه و هدایت الکتریکی استفاده شد. تاریخ کاشت اثر معنی‌داری بر جوانه‌زنی و قدرت بذر داشت. درصد جوانه‌زنی دو رقم ویلیامز و سحر در چهار تاریخ کاشت ثابت و بیش از 90 درصد بود، اما در تاریخ‌های کاشت 31 فروردین در رقم ویلیامز و 31 تیر در رقم سحر کاهش یافت. تاریخ کاشت اثر معنی‌داری بر درصد جوانه‌زنی در رقم دی‌پی‌ایکس نداشت. کشت‌های زود هنگام در بهار باعث کاهش قدرت بذر در هر سه رقم به دلیل وقوع دماهای بالا طی دوره پر شدن بذر شد. با تأخیر در کاشت قدرت بذر در هر سه رقم افزایش یافت، اما در دو رقم سحر و دی‌پی‌ایکس وقوع دماهای بسیار پایین و بارندگی زیاد طی مراحل نمو بذر در تاریخ کاشت 31 تیر باعث کاهش مجدد قدرت بذر شد. بنابراین توصیه می‌شود که برای تولید بذرهایی با کیفیت بالا از کشت‌های زودهنگام و نیز دیرهنگام پرهیز شود.

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