تأثیر دو گونه قارچ میکوریزا بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی دانه توده های محلی کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.) در سطوح مختلف تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران

چکیده

این آزمایش به‌منظور بررسی اثرات همزیستی با دو گونه قارچ میکوریزا بر درصد و عملکرد روغن، درصد و عملکرد پروتئین و عملکرد دانه 8 توده محلی کنجد در سطوح مختلف تنش خشکی در سال زراعی 93-1392 به‌صورت فاکتوریل- اسپلیت پلات با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی هنرستان کشاورزی ارومیه اجرا گردید. فاکتور اول شامل سطوح مختلف آبیاری (آبیاری معمولی: آبیاری بعد از 70 میلی‌متر تبخیر و تعرق گیاه، تنش ملایم: آبیاری بعد از 90 میلی‌متر تبخیر و تعرق گیاه و تنش شدید: آبیاری بعد از 110 میلی‌متر تبخیر و تعرق گیاه)، فاکتور دوم شامل عدم تلقیح و تلقیح با دو گونه قارچ میکوریزای Glomus mosseae، Glomus intraradices و فاکتور سوم شامل 8 توده محلی کنجد (جیرفت 13، محلی طارم زنجان، محلی مغان، ناز چند شاخه، TC-25، TS-3، داراب 14 و دشتستان 5) بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد تاثیر سطوح مختلف آبیاری، میکوریزا و ژنوتیپ بر صفات مورد مطالعه معنی دار بود. مقایسه میانگین ها نشان داد با افزایش شدت تنش خشکی، عملکرد دانه، درصد روغن، درصد پروتئین، عملکرد روغن، عملکرد پروتئین و عملکرد بیولوژیک به‌طور معنی داری کاهش یافت. تنش شدید خشکی عملکرد روغن و عملکرد پروتئین را به‌ترتیب به میزان 67 و 66درصد کاهش داد. استفاده از دو گونه قارچ میکوریزا نسبت به حالت عدم استفاده از قارچ باعث افزایش عملکرد دانه و بهبود صفات کیفی دانه شد. رابطه بین صفات کیفی دانه با عملکرد دانه مثبت و معنی دار بود و بالاترین ضریب همبستگی برای عملکرد پروتئین و عملکرد روغن با عملکرد دانه (**99/0=r) به‌دست آمد. در بین توده های محلی کنجد مورد بررسی، ژنوتیپ های محلی مغان و طارم زنجان از نظر عملکرد دانه (به‌ترتیب 31/206 و 96/177 گرم بر مترمربع)، روغن (به‌ترتیب 70/147 و 34/121 گرم بر مترمربع) و پروتئین (به‌ترتیب 57/76 و 70/62 گرم بر مترمربع) در هر سه شرایط مختلف آبیاری، برتر از سایر توده ها بودند. این توده ها به‌عنوان توده های محلی برتر معرفی می-گردند. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق، جهت بهبود صفات کیفی مانند درصد روغن و پروتئین تلقیح با قارچ های میکوریزا به‌خصوص گونه G.mosseae توصیه می گردد.

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