تأثیر منابع تغذیه‌ای و سطوح آب آبیاری بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد، فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی و میزان آنتوسیانین کاسبرگ گیاه دارویی چای ترش (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) در جیرفت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشگاه جیرفت

چکیده

این تحقیق با هدف مطالعه تأثیر منابع تغذیه‌ای و سطوح آب آبیاری بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد، فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی و میزان آنتوسیانین کاسبرگ گیاه دارویی چای ترش در دو سال زراعی92-1391 و 93-1392 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه جیرفت، به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده نواری در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. سطوح آب آبیاری در سه سطح 60 ، 80 و 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه به‌عنوان عامل کرت‌های افقی و منبع تغذیه‌ا‌ی گیاه در چهار سطح (کود زیستی مایکوریزا، ورمی‌کمپوست، کود گاوی، کود شیمیایی (نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم) و تیمار شاهد به‌عنوان عامل کرت‌های عمودی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب نشان داد که اثر منابع تغذیه‌ای و سطوح آب آبیاری بر ارتفاع بوته، طول سرشاخه گلدار، تعداد غوزه در بوته، وزن کاسبرگ خشک در بوته، عملکرد کاسبرگ، عملکرد زیست‌توده، فعالیت آنتی‌آکسیدانی و میزان آنتوسیانین کاسبرگ معنی‌دار بود. همچنین اثر متقابل منابع تغذیه‌ای و سطوح آب آبیاری بر عملکرد کاسبرگ و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی کاسبرگ معنی‌دار بود. بیشترین وزن کاسبرگ خشک در سطح 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه و منبع تغذیه‌ای کود گاوی و کمترین عملکرد وزن کاسبرگ در تیمار شاهد در سطح 60 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه به‌دست آمد. با توجه به اینکه سطوح 100 و 80 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه در اکثر ویژگی‌های مورد بررسی تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود نداشتند، به‌نظر می‌رسد که سطح 80 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه به‌ترتیب توأم با مصرف کودهای دامی، ورمی‌کمپوست و شیمیایی در زراعت چای ترش مناسب می‌باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


1. Abe, N., Murata, T., and Hirota, A. 1998. Novel 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhy- drazyl- radical scavengers, bisorbicillin and demethyltrichodimerol, from a fungus. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 62: 661-662.
2. Abid-Askari, M. Solangi, S., and Ahmed, S. I. 1995. Autecological studies of exotic plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) (Roselle), a multipurpose plant, for is introduction and culture. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 38 (1): 17-21.
3. Abrishamchi, P., Ganjeali, A., and Sakeni, H. 2012. Evaluation of morphological traits, proline content and antioxidant enzymes activity in chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L.) under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research 3(2): 17-30. (in Persian with English abstract).
4. Agriculture Organization of Sistan and Baluchestan Province of Iran. 2014. Sb-agrijahad.ir
5. Ahmad Abadi, Z., Ghajar Sepanlou, M., and Bahmanya, M. A. R. 2011. Effect of vermicompost application on amount of micro elements in soil and the content in the medicinal plant of Borage (Borago officinalis). Journal of Crops Improvement 13(2): 1-12. (in Persian with English abstract).
6. Ahmed, S. K., El-Ghawas, E. O., and Aly, A. F. 1998. Effect of dry yeast and organic manure on Roselle plant. Egypt Journal of Agricultur and Reclamation 76(3):1115-11142.
7. Akbari Nodehi, D. 2011. The effect of different water Quantities on Yield, Water Use efficiency and Cotton Yield Function in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science 21(1): 103-111. (in Persian).
8. Akbarinia, A. 2003. Study yield and effective substance Ammi (Trachyspermum ammi L.) in conventional farming systems, organic and compilation. Ph.D. Agronomy Dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture. Tarbiat Moddares University. (in Persian).
9. Alizadeh, A., and Kamali, Gh. 2008.Crop Water Requirement in Iran. Astan Quds Razavi. Second edition.
10. Amin, A., and Hamza, A. A. 2005. Hepatoprotective effect of Hibiscus, Rosmarinus and Salvia on azathioprine-induced toxicity in rats. Life Science 77(3): 266-278.
11. Basri, M. H. A., Abdu, A., Jusop, Sh., Ahmed, O. H., Abdul-Hamid, H., Kusno, M. A., Zainal, B., Senin, A. L., and Junejo, N. 2013. Effects of mixed organic and inorganic fertilizers application on soil properties and the growth of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) cultivated on bris soils. American Journal of Applied Sciences 10(12): 1586-1597.
12. Chewonarin, T., Kinouchi, T., Kataoka, K., Arimachi, H., Kuwahara, T., Initke Kumnuen, U., and Ohnishi, F. 1999. Effect of roselle a Thai medicinal plant, on the matagenicity of various known mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium and on formation of Aberrant Crypt Foci induced by the colon carcinogens azoxymethane and 2-amino-methyl-6-phenylimidazo (4,5-b) pyridine in F344 rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 37: 591-601.
13. Dahmardeh, M. 2012. Effect of mineral and organic fertilizers on the growth and calyx yield of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). African Journal of Biotechnology 11(48): 10899-10902.
14. Daneshian, J., Yousefi, M., Zandi, P., Jonoubi, P., and Khatibani, L. B. 2011. Effect of planting density and cattle manure on some qualitative and quantitative traits in two basil varieties under Guilan condition, Iran. American - Eurasian Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences 11(1): 95-103.
15. Darzi, M. T. 2012. Effects of organic manure and biofertilizer application on flowering and some yield traits of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 4(3): 103-107.
16. Duke, J. A. 2006. Ecosystematic data on economic plants. Journal of Crude Research 17(3): 91-110.
17. Gendy, A. S. H., Said-Al Ahl, H. A. H., and Abeer Mahmoud, A. 2012. Growth, productivity and chemical constituents of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) plants as influenced by cattle manure and biofertilizers treatments. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 6(5): 1-12.
18. Ghorbanli, M., Bakhshi Khaniki, Gh., and Zakeri, A. 2011. Investigation on the effects of water stress on antioxidant compounds of Linum usitatissimum L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 27(4): 647-658. (In Persian with English abstract).
19. Hassan, F. A. S. 2009. Response of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) plant to some biofertilization treatments. Annals of Agriculture Sciences 54: 437-446.
20. Hidalgo, P., Sindoni, M., Matta, F., and Nagel, D. H. 2002. Earthworm castings increase germination rate and seedling development of cucumber. http://msucares.com/pubs/research reports rr22-6.htm.
21. Khorramdel, S., Mokamel, M., and Siah Margooei, A. 2013. Evaluation Flower and seed yield Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) under different levels of plant density on weather conditions Shirvan.1st Regional Congress on Medical Plants of North. (in Persian).
22. Locke, J. M., Bryce, J. H., and Morris, P. C. 2000. Contrasting effects of ethylene perception and biolsynthesis inhibitors on germination and seedlings growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 51: 1843-1849.
23. Morton, J.1987.Roselle. In: fruits of warm climates. Julia, F. Morton, Miami, FL P, 281-286.
24. Mukerji, K. G., and Chamola, B. P. 2003. Compendium of Mycorrhizal Research. A. P. H. Publisher. New Delhi. P. 310.
25. Nemati, M., and Dahmardeh, M. 2015. The effect of cow manure and biologic on yield and Morphological parameters Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Journal of Agroecology 7(1): 62-73. (in Persian with English abstract).
26. Olaleye, M. T. 2007. Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 1(1): 9-13.
27. Pidavos, Z., and Heidari, R. 2013. The effect of drought stress on activity antioxidant and total phenol on Echium amoenum Mey & Fisch, Second National Conference on climate change and its impact on agriculture and the environment, Urmia, West Azerbaijan Province Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources. (in Persian).
28. Raja Sekar, K., and Karmegam, N. 2010. Earthworm castsas an alternate carrier material for biofertilizers: Assessment of endurance and viability of Azotobacter chroococum, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Scientia Horticulturae 124: 286-289.
29. Rao, P. U. 1996. Nutrient composition and biological evaluation of mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds. Plant food- for Human Nutrition 49 (1): 27- 34.
30. Research Station Agricultural Meteorology. 2014. Miandeh, Jiroft city.
31. Rezae, M., and Baradaran, R. 2013. Effects of bio fertilizers on the yield and yield components of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 29(3): 635-650. (in Persian with English abstract).
32. Siroos Mehr, A., Arbabi, J., and Asghari Poor, M. R. 1391. The effect of drought stress and organic fertilizer levels on yield and some of morphological traits basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) National Conference of Natural Products and Medicinal Plants, October 3. (in Persian).
33. Roustaie, Kh., Movahhedi Dehnavi, M., Khadem, S. A., and Owliaie, H. R. 2012. Effect of different super absorbent polymer and animal manure ratios on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of soybean under drought stress. Journal of Crops Improvement 14(1): 33-42. (in Persian with English abstract).
34. Sreevalli, Y., Baskaran, K., Chandrashekara, R., Kuikkarni, R., Sushil Hasan, A., Samresh, D., Kukre, J., Ashok, A., Sharma Singh, K., Srikant, S., and Rakesh, T. 2001. Preliminary observations on the effect of irrigation frequency and genotypes on yield and alkaloid concentration in Petriwinkle. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences 22: 356-358.
35. Tiamiyu, R. A., Ahmed H. G., and Muhammad, A. S. 2012. Effect of sources of organic manure on growth and yields of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Sokoto, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science 20(3): 213-216.
36. Torabi A. 2004. Effect of planting date and row spacing on the yield of Sour tea. MSC thesis. Azad University of Jiroft. 125p. (in Persian with English abstract).
37. Tsai, P. J., Mcinton, J., Pearce, P., Camden, B., and Jordan, B. R. 2002. Anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract. Food Research International 35: 351-356.
38. Wanger, G. J. 1979. Content and vacuole/ extra vacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids, and anthocyanin's in protoplast. Plant Physiology 64: 88-93.
39. Watkinson, J. I., Hendricks, L., Sioson, A. A., Vasquez- Robinet, C., Verlyn, S., Heath, L.S., Schuler, M., Bohnert, H. J., Bonierbale, M., and Grene, R. 2006. Accessions of Solanum toberosum spp. Andigena show differences in photosynthetic recovery after drought stress as reflected in gene expression profiles. Plant Science 1-14.