بررسی وضعیت نیتروژن در ژنوتیپ‌های گندم دیم (Triticum aestivum L.) با استفاده از نیتروژن-15

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 موسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم کشور

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 سازمان انرژی اتمی

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر کاربرد زمان و میزان مصرف نیتروژن بر وضعیت تنش نیتروژنی و تولید ژنوتیپ‌های گندم دیم، پژوهشی در قالب کرتهای دو بار خرد شده با استفاده از نیتروژن-15 در موسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم به اجرا درآمد. زمان مصرف نیتروژن در کرت اصلی (کل در پاییز و در پاییز و در بهار)، مقادیر نیتروژن در کرت فرعی (0، 30، 60 و 90 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و ژنوتیپ‌ها در کرت‌ فرعی فرعی (آذر 2، رصد، اوحدی و ژنوتیپ‌های شماره 1 الی 4) در 3 تکرار طی سال زراعی 90-1389 مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد، بین زمان مصرف نیتروژن از لحاظ عملکرد و پارامترهای جذب نیتروژن تفاوت معنی‌داری مشاهده نشد، اما مصرف نیتروژن توانست به‌طور متوسط ماده خشک گیاهی (2052 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، عملکرد دانه (1053 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، عملکرد بیولوژیک (3403 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، برداشت نیتروژن کل (21/8 درصد)، برداشت نیتروژن کود (10/3 درصد)، اتم درصد اضافی نیتروژن-15 در گیاه (1/75 اتم درصد)، نیتروژن جذب شده از کود نشاندار (21/9 درصد)، شاخص تنش نیتروژن (0/3) و پروتئین دانه (1/3 واحد) را به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش دهد. شاخص تنش نیتروژن (NSI) مناسب‌ترین شاخص برای تعیین وضعیت نیتروژن گیاه شناسایی شد. همچنین نیتروژن برداشت شده از کود نشاندار (%Ndff) نیز از شاخص‌های مطلوب در این خصوص بود. برای رفع تنش نیتروژنی و تولید بهینه ژنوتیپ‌های گندم دیم، کاربرد تیمار N60 مناسب‌ترین میزان نیتروژن و در بین ژنوتیپ‌ها رقم آذر 2 مطلوب‌ترین و Genotype1 و Genotype2 نامناسب‌ترین بود. در مجموع استنباط می‌شود، با استفاده از شاخص NSI و نیتروژن برداشت شده از کود نشاندار می‌توان وضعیت نیتروژن در ژنوتیپ‌های گندم دیم و زمان و میزان مصرف کودهای نیتروژنی را تعیین نمود.

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