1. Afrasiabi, M., Amini Dehaghi, M., and Modarres Sanavy, S. A. M. 2010. Effect of phosphate biofertilizer Barvar-2 and triple super phosphate fertilizer on yield, quality and nutrient uptake of Medicago scutellata, cv. Robinson. Journal of Science and Agriculture 4 (4): 43-54. (in Persian with English abstract).
2. Ahrari, A., Fathi Nasri, M. H., Yousef Allah, M., and Riasi, A. 2013. The effect of N fertilizer and polyethylene glycol on chemical composition and digestibility of safflower forage and silage. Journal of Animal Science Researches 23 (2): 73-90. (in Persian with English abstract).
3. AOAC. 2007. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of official analytical chemists, Arlington, USA.
4. Asgharzadeh, F., Fathi, M. H., and Behdani, M. A. 2015. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on nutritive value of safflower forage and silage. Iranian Journal of Animal Science 45 (4): 375-38. (in Persian with English abstract).
5. Bahreininejad, B., and Sadeghian, M. 2004. The quantitative and qualitative evaluation of artichoke and its by-products as a new and high production plant. The 2nd conggress on applied biology (international approach) review reports. Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran, 29-30 September 2004.
6. Day, A. D., and Ludeke, K. L. 1992. Plant nutrients in desert environment. Springer Velage.
7. Fateh, E., Chaichi, M. R., Sharifi Ashoorabadi, E., and Mazaheri, D. 2009. Effects of chemical and organic fertilizers on some silage chemical properties of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). 11th Iranian Crop Science Congress, Environmental Sciences research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, 24-26 July 2009. (in Persian with English abstract).
8. Fedorak, P. M., and Hrudey. S. E. 1983. A Simple apparatus for measuring gas production by methanogenic cultuvesin serum bottles. Environmental Technology Letters 4: 425-435.
9. Gasa, J., Castrillo, C., Baucells, M. D., and Guada, J. A. 1989. By- products from the canning industry as feedstuff for ruminants: Digestibility and it`s prediction from chemical composition and laboratory bioassays. Animal Feed Science and Technology 25: 67-77.
10. Green Biotech Company. 2017. PhosphoBARVAR-2 (Phosphate Biofertilizer). http://www.greenbiotech-co.com
11. Gul, M. A., Alcicek, A., and Tumer, S. 2001. Research on silage possibility and feeding value of artichoke stalks with leaves. Anadolu Journal of Agricultural Sciences 11: 20-32.
12. Gupta, M. L., Prasad, A., Ram, M., and Kumar, S. 2002. Effect of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasiculatum on the essential oil yield related characters and nutrient acquisition in the crops of different cultivars of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) under field conditions. Bioresource Technology 81: 77-79.
13. Islam, M. R., Garcia, S. C., and Horadagoda, A. 2012. Effects of irrigation and rates and timing of nitrogen fertilizer on dry matter yield, proportions of plant fractions of maize and nutritive value and in vitro gas production characteristics of whole crop maize silage. Animal Feed Science and Technology 172: 125-135.
14. Kamalak, A., Canbolat, O., Erol, A., Kilinc, C., Kizilsmsek, M., Ozkan, C. O., and Ozkose, E. 2005. Effect of variety on chemical composition, in vitro gas production, metabolizable energy and organic matter digestibility of alfalfa hays. Livestock Research for Rural Development 17 (7): 1707-1712.
15. Karimi Pashaki, S., Mirhadi, S., Rabiee, M., and Shahdi Kumleh, A. 2013. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus levels stress on the qualiative traits and forage yield of triticale as double cropping in a paddy field of Guilan. Crop Production in Environmental Stress 4 (4): 27-38. (in Persian with English abstract).
16. Karimi, M. M. 1992. Isfahan Province Climate. Budget and planning organization of Isfahan province, Isfahan. (in Persian).
17. Kochert, G. 1978. Carbohydrate determination by the phenol-sulphuric acid method. In: Handbook of Phycological Methods, Physiological and Biochemical Methods. Hellebust JA, Craigie, JS, editors. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 95-97 p.
18. Majidian, M., Khoshchehreh Ziba, E., and Mansouri Far, C. 2016. Yield and quality of two forage sorghum cultivars influenced by manure and nitrogen fertilizer. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science 26 (1): 131-143. (in Persian with English abstract).
19. Makkar, H. P. S., Blummel, M., and Becker, K. 1995. Formation of complexes between polyvinyle pyrrolidones or polyethylene glycols and tannins, and their implication in gas production and true digestibility in in vitro techniques. British Journal of Nutrition 73: 897-913.
20. McDonald, P., Edwards, R. A., Greenhalgh, J. F. D., and Morgan, C. A. 1995. Animal Nutrition. Longman Scientific and Technical, New York, USA.
21. McGrath, D. 1992. A note on the influence of nitrogen application and time of cutting on water soluble carbohydrate production by Italian ryegrass. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 31: 189-192.
22. McKenzie, R. H. Middleton, A. Solberg, E. DeMulder, J., and Najda, H. 1998. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Optimize Barley Silage Production. Better Crops 82 (4): 22-23.
23. Mehnaz, S., Weselowski, B., Mufti, F. A., Zahid, S., Lazarovits, G., and Iqbal, J. 2009. Isolation, characterization and effect of fluorescent pseudomonads on micropropagated sugarcane. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 55: 1007-1011.
24. MehrAsia Biotechnology Company. 2017. Nitroxin-General. http://www.mabco.asia.com
25. Meneses, M., Megias, M. D., Madrid, J., Martinez-Teruel, A., Fernandez, F., and Oliva, J. 2007. Evaluation of the phytosanitary, fermentative and nutritive characteristics of the silage made from crude artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) by-product feeding for ruminants. Small Ruminant Research 70: 292-296.
26. Menke, K. H., and Steingass, H. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research Development 28: 7-55.
27. Menke, K. H., Rabb, L., Saleweski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D., and Schnider, W. 1979. The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feed stuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Journal of Agricultural Science 93: 217-222.
28. Muyayabantu, G. M., Kadiata, B. D., and Nkongolo, K. K. 2013. Assessing the effects of integrated soil fertility management on biological efficiency and economic advantages of intercropped maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) in DR Congo. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 3 (3): 520-541.
29. Patten, C. L., and Glick, B. R. 2002. Role of Pseudomonas putida indole acetic acid in development of host plant root system. Applied Environmental Microbiology 68 (8): 3795-3801.
30. Prasad, R. 1996. Cropping systems and sustainable agriculture. Indian Farming 46: 39-45.
31. Ranjbari, A., Mosharraf, S. H., Rasti Ardakani, M., and Bahraininejad, B. 2013. Evaluation of the nutritive value of artichoke as a source of feed for ruminants. Institute of Forests and Rangelands. (in Persian).
32. Sadeghian, M., Allame, S. K., Ebadi, M. R., and Bahreininejad, B. 2015. Investigation of chemical composition and silage characterizations of Cynara scolymus L. to use in animal nutrition. The National Conference of the Organic Animal, Poultry and Aquatics Products. 2 and 3 September, Gilan University.
33. Saeidnejad, A., Khazaei, H., and Rezvani Moghaddam, P. 2012a. Assessing the effect of organic compounds, biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers on morphological properties, yield and yield components of forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 10 (3): 503-510. (in Persian with English abstract).
34. Saeidnejad, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Khazaei, H., and Nassiri Mohallati, M. 2012b. Assessment the effect of organic fertilizers, biofertilizers and chemical on the dry matter digestibility and protein content of forage sorghum. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 9 (4): 623-630. (in Persian with English abstract).
35. Sallam, S. M. A., Bueno, I. C. S., Godoy, P. B., Nozella, E. F., Vitti, D. M. S. S. and Abdalla, A. L. 2008. Nutritive value assessment of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus) by-product as an alternative feed resource for ruminants. Tropical and Subtropical Agro ecosystems 8: 181-189.
36. Shabani, G. H., Ardakani, M. R., Chaichi, M. R., Friedel, J. K., and Khavaz, K. 2015. Effect of Different fertilizing treatments on nutrient uptake in annual medic (Medicago scutellata cv. Robinson) under irrigated and dry farming systems. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 17: 299-310. (in Persian with English abstract).
37. Shahverdi, M., Mirshekari, B., Asadi Rahmani, H., Rashidi, V., and Ardakani, M. 2014. Effect of biological and reduced rates of chemical fertilizers on forage yield in Persian clover. Journal of Crops Improvement 16 (2): 271-287. (in Persian with English abstract).
38. Sharma, A. K. 2002. Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Central Arid Zone Research Institute Godhpur, India.
39. Soest, P. J. V. 1985. Composition, Fiber quality, and Nutritive value of forages. In: Forages, The Science of grassland Agriculture. Maurice, E.H., B. F. Robert, and M.S. Darrel (4th Ed), Iowa state Univ. press Ames, Iowa, USA. p. 413-421.
40. Thalooth, A. T., Sary, G. A. -L., El-Nagar, H. M., El-Kramany, M. F., Kabesh, M. O., and Bakhoum, G. S. H. 2015. Yield and quality response of Ryegrass, Egyptian clover and their Mixtures to different sources of fertilizers. Agricultural Sciences 6: 137-145.
41. Tilak, K. V. B. R., Ranganayaki, N., Pal KK, D. R., Saxena, A. K., Nautiyal, C. S., Mittal, S., Tripathi, A. K., and Johri, B. N. 2005. Diversity of plant growth and soil health supporting bacteria. Current Science 89 (1): 136-150.
42. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B., and Lewis, B.A. 1991. Method for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74: 3583-3597.
43. Vessey, J. K. 2003. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizer. Plant and Soil 255: 571-586.
44. Weinberg, Z., Landau, S., Bar-Tal, A., Chen, Y., Gamburg, M., Brener, S., and Dvash, L. 2005. Ensiling safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) as an alternative winter forage crop in Israel. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 15th International Silage Conference. Belfast.
45. Weinberg, Z. G., Bar-Tal, A., Chen, Y., Gamburg, M., Brener, S., Dvash, L., Markovitz, T., and Landau, S. 2007. The effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on the ensiling of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). Animal Feed Science and Technology 134: 152-161.
46. Ziaee, S., Dast Pak, A., Naghdi Abadi, A., Poor Hosseini, H., Hemati Moghadam, L., Gharavi, A., and Naeini, M. 2004. Review on Cynara scolymus L. Journal of Medicinal Plants 4 (13): 1-10. (in Persian with English abstract).