ارزیابی خصوصیات ریشه و عملکرد دانه ارقام گندم تحت تأثیر باکتری‌های حل‌کننده فسفات و قارچ میکوریزا در شرایط دیم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه ایلام

2 موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر تلقیح با باکتری سودوموناس و قارچ میکوریزا بر سیستم ریشه‌دهی و عملکرد دانه ارقام گندم در شرایط دیم، آزمایشی مزرعه‌ای به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو مزرعه در دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام و ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی سرابله در سال زراعی 93-1392 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل عامل رقم گندم در دو سطح (کراس‌سبلان و ساجی) و تیمار منابع کودی در هشت سطح شامل: 1- شاهد (عدم مصرف هیچ منبع کودی)، 2- 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی فسفر، 3- باکتری سودوموناس پوتیدا، 4- قارچ گلوموس موسه آ، 5- باکتری سودوموناس پوتیدا+ قارچ گلوموس موسه آ، 6- باکتری سودوموناس پوتیدا+ قارچ گلوموس موسه آ+25 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی فسفر، 7- باکتری سودوموناس پوتیدا+25 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی فسفر و 8- قارچ گلوموس موسه آ+25 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی فسفر بودند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که برهمکنش رقم×منابع کودی بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد دانه و همچنین خصوصیات ریشه‌ای گندم دیم معنی‌دار بود. به‌طوری‌که بیشترین تعداد سنبله در مترمربع (افزایش 7/16 درصدی)، تعداد دانه در سنبله (افزایش 2/67 درصدی)، وزن هزار دانه (افزایش 3/19 درصدی)، عملکرد دانه (افزایش 72 درصدی)، عملکرد زیست‌توده (افزایش 57 درصدی)، حجم ریشه (افزایش 6/53 درصدی)، سطح ریشه (افزایش 3/69 درصدی)، تراکم طول ریشه (افزایش 5/76 درصدی) و چگالی سطح ریشه (افزایش 69 درصدی) در رقم ساجی× قارچ گلوموس موسه آ+25 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی فسفر نسبت به شاهد (عدم مصرف هیچ منبع کودی) به‌دست آمد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که در شرایط کشت گندم دیم در ایلام که گیاه با تنش‌های آخر فصلی (خشکی و دما) مواجه می‌گردد، گندم دوروم دیم رقم ساجی و تلقیح با قارچ میکوریزا به دلیل بهبود سیستم ریشه‌دهی در شرایط دیم نتیجه مطلوب‌تری از خود نشان داده و موجب افزایش عملکرد دانه می‌گردد.

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