تأثیر تاریخ کاشت و میزان آب آبیاری بر خصوصیات رشدی و عملکرد گیاه دارویی اسفرزه (Plantago ovate L.) در شرایط آب و هوایی سرخس

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، پردیس دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خراسان رضوی

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تاثیر تاریخ کاشت و میزان آب آبیاری بر خصوصیات رشدی و عملکرد گیاه دارویی اسفرزه، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 95-1394 در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی کشاورزی سرخس صورت گرفت. آزمایش به‌صورت کرت‌های نواری در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای شامل چهار سطح آبیاری 100، 80، 60 و 40 درصد نیاز آبی در کرت‌های افقی و چهار تاریخ کاشت 15 اسفند، 1 فروردین، 15 فروردین و 30 فروردین در کرت‌های عمودی قرار گرفتند. نتایج شاخص‌های رشد نشان داد حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ (به‌ترتیب 4/3 و 3/3)، سرعت رشد محصول (12/22 و 18/22 گرم بر مترمربع در روز) و تجمع ماده خشک (9/444 و 4/445 گرم در مترمربع) در تیمار 100 و 80 درصد نیاز آبی به‌دست آمد. همچنین حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ (2 و 86/1) در تاریخ‌های کاشت 30 و 15 فروردین، حداکثر سرعت رشد محصول (14 و 14 گرم بر مترمربع در روز) و تجمع ماده خشک (270 و 3/261 گرم بر مترمربع) نیز در تیمارهای 1 فروردین و 15 اسفند به‌دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین تعداد دانه در بوته (36/1210 عدد)، عملکرد دانه (4/1891 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، عملکرد بیولوژیک (8/5607 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، تعداد سنبله در بوته (67/29 عدد) و وزن هزاردانه (05/2 گرم) در تیمار 80 درصد نیاز آبی و تاریخ کاشت 1 فروردین حاصل شد. بیشترین شاخص برداشت (4/36 درصد) در تیمار 100 درصد نیاز آبی و تاریخ کاشت 15 اسفند به‌دست آمد. با توجه به نتایج حاصله، بهترین تاریخ کاشت و سطح آبیاری جهت نیل به حداکثر عملکرد و حفظ منابع آبی در منطقه سرخس به‌ترتیب 1 فروردین و 80 درصد نیاز آبی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


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