تأثیر کاربرد اپی‎براسینولید بر تخصیص مواد فتوسنتزی، مقاومت به خشکی و عملکرد دانه دو ژنوتیپ لوبیا چیتی (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

2 گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کاربرد اپی‎براسینولید بر تخصیص مواد فتوسنتزی لوبیا، پژوهشی به‌صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه‌ تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زنجان در سال زراعی 1395-1394 اجرا شد. در این پژوهش، آبیاری مطلوب و تنش خشکی در کرت‎های اصلی و ژنوتیپ‎های لوبیا (رقم کوشا و ژنوتیپ COS16) و غلظت‎های مختلف اپی‌براسینولید (عدم کاربرد هورمون یا شاهد، 2، 4 و 6 میکرومولار) به‌صورت فاکتوریل در کرت‌های فرعی قرار گرفتند. در مرحله گل‌دهی، تنش خشکی اعمال (قطع آبیاری تا رسیدن پتانسیل آب خاک به 5/1- مگاپاسکال) و بوته‌های لوبیا با اپی‌براسینولید محلول‌پاشی شد و سپس آبیاری مجدد صورت گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که اثر اصلی تنش خشکی و نیز هورمون‌پاشی بر محتوای نسبی آب برگ، میزان پرولین، میزان مالون‌دی‌آلدهید، وزن خشک برگ، ساقه، غلاف و کل و عملکرد دانه معنی‌دار بود. هم‌چنین، اثر متقابل تنش خشکی در ژنوتیپ‌ها بر عملکرد دانه معنی‌دار بود. تنش خشکی باعث کاهش معنی‌دار وزن خشک برگ، ساقه، غلاف و عملکرد دانه شد و گیاه در شرایط تنش خشکی، مواد فتوسنتزی کمتری را به برگ و ساقه و مواد فتوسنتزی بیشتری را به غلاف، اختصاص داد. بالاترین عملکرد دانه در رقم کوشا در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب (با میانگین 45/3025 کیلوگرم بر هکتار) و پایین‌ترین میزان این صفت در ژنوتیپCOS16  در شرایط تنش خشکی (با میانگین 89/980 کیلوگرم بر هکتار) مشاهده گردید. کاربرد اپی‌براسینولید باعث افزایش وزن خشک برگ، ساقه، غلاف و عملکرد دانه در مقایسه با شاهد شد. بالاترین عملکرد دانه با کاربرد 2 میکرومولار اپی‌براسینولید (با میانگین‌ 2/2068 کیلوگرم بر هکتار) حاصل شد و کاربرد این غلظت، عملکرد دانه را به‌میزان 07/46 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد. همچنین، کاربرد اپی‎براسینولید با کاهش در میزان مالون‌دی‎آلدهید و افزایش در محتوای نسبی آب برگ و میزان پرولین باعث افزایش مقاومت به تنش خشکی شد. بنابراین، کاربرد اپی‌براسینولید را به‏عنوان راهکاری جهت افزایش عملکرد دانه لوبیا و افزایش مقاومت به خشکی این گیاه می­‌توان پیشنهاد نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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