ارزیابی محرک‌های رشد گیاهی بر شاخص‌های رشد، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ارقام سیب‌زمینی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر محرک‌های رشد گیاهی بر شاخص‌های رشد و خصوصیات ارقام سیب‌زمینی در دو مطالعه انجام شد. مطالعه اول به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی بهبهان در سال زراعی 99-1398 اجرا شد. فاکتور اول شامل دو رقم سیب‌زمینی: اوتاوا و سانته بود. فاکتور دوم شامل هشت تیمار: اسید هیومیک، اسید آمینه آزاد، اسید آمینه-عنصر غذایی (Zn، K، Ca و K-Ca)، مصرف توأم تیمارها (به‌جز اسید آمینه) و شاهد بود. در مطالعه دوم، شاخص‌های رشد با استفاده از آزمایش اسپلیت‌پلات فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار ارزیابی شدند. فاکتور اصلی پنج دوره نمونه‌برداری و دو رقم و هشت محرک رشد به‌صورت فاکتوریل، به‌عنوان فاکتور فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. در رقم سانته بیشترین عملکرد غده مربوط به تیمار مصرف توأم بود و نسبت به بقیه تیمارها برتری معنی‌داری داشت. در رقم اوتاوا نیز حداکثر عملکرد مربوط به تیمار مصرف توأم بود ولی نسبت به اسید آمینه‌های پتاسیم یا کلسیم‌دار و اسید هیومیک برتری معنی‌داری نداشت. نتایج آنالیز رشد مشخص نمود در بیشتر دوره‌های نمونه‌برداری سرعت رشد غده و محصول تیمار مصرف توأم از سایر تیمارها بیشتر بود. لذا حداکثر عملکرد غده به این تیمار اختصاص یافت. در دوره‌های مختلف نمونه‌برداری سرعت رشد غده و محصول در رقم اوتاوا به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از رقم سانته بود. بر اساس نتایج این پژوهش، در رقم سانته کاربرد توأم محرک‌های رشد و در رقم اوتاوا کاربرد اسید آمینه‌های پتاسیم یا کلسیم‌دار یا اسید هیومیک توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات



  1. Abd El-Baky, M. M. H., Ahmed, A. A., El-Nemr, M. A., and Zaki, M. F. 2010. Effect of potassium fertilizer and foliar zinc application on yield and quality of sweet potato. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 6: 386-394.
  2. Aien, A., and Jalali, A. 2018. Effect of foliar application of calcium nitrate application on yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum ) cultivars under terminal heat stress condition in south of Kerman province. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 20 (3): 193-208. (in Persian with English abstract).
  3. Ahmadi, K., Abadzadeh, H., Hatemi, P., Abdeshah, H., and Kazemian, H. 2019. Agricultural statistics, first volume-horticultural and field crop, 2016-17. Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture, Programing and Economic Deputy, Statistics and Information Technology Office. pp.68. (in Persian).
  4. Ali, S., Riaz, K. A., Mairaj, G., Arif, M., Fida, M., and Bibi, S. 2008. Assessment of different crop nutrient management practices for yield improvement. Australian Journal of Crop Science 2: 150-157.
  5. Alloway, B. J. 2009. Soil factors associated with zinc deficiency in crops and humans. Environ Geochemist Health 31: 537-548.
  6. Amiri, Z., Asghari, J., and Penahi Kord aghari, K. 2009. Effect of irrigation regimes and fertilizer combinations on yield of two potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Freidan. Journal of Water and Soil Science 12 (46): 177-186. (in Persian with English abstract).
  7. Anwar, , Iqbal, F., Khattak, W. A., Islam, M., and Khan, S. 2016. Response of wheat crop to humic acid and nitrogen levels. EC Agriculture 3 (1): 558-565.
  8. Al-Mahmud, A., Altaf, H., Abdullah, A., Shamimuzzaman, E. H., Shafiur,, Shawquat, A. K., and Bazzaz, B. 2014. Plant canopy, tuber yield and growth analysis of potato under moderate and severe drought condition. Journal of Plant Science 2 (5): 201-208.
  9. Chen, Y., Clapp, C. E., and Magen, H. 2004. Mechanisms of plant growth stimulation by humic substances: the role of organo iron complexes. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 50 (7): 1089-1095.
  10. Disante, K. B., Fuentes, D., and Cortina, J. 2010. Sensitivity to zinc of mediterranean woody species important for restoration. Science of The total Environment 408 (10): 2216-2225.
  11. Darabi, A. 2013. Effect of planting date on total and marketable yield of potato cultivars in Khuzestan province in Iran. Seed and Plant Production Journal 29-2 (3): 369-386. (in Persian with English abstract).
  12. Darabi, , and Eftekhari, S. A. 2014. Investigaton the phenology stages and some growth indices of three potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) cultivars. Journal of Plant Productions 37 (2): 53-68. (in Persian with English abstract).
  13. Darabi, A. 2017. Study on the agro-meteorological indices at different phenological stages and growth analysis of new potato genotypes. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 18 (3): 271-286. (in Persian with English abstract).
  14. Darabi, A., and Salehi Mohammadi, R. 2015. Effect of planting date on dry matter content and agronomical characteristics of potato cultivars influenced by natural frost in field conditions. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science 46 (1): 27-39. (in Persian with English abstract).
  15. Darabi, A., Omidvari, S., Shafiezargar, A. R., Rafie, M. R., and Javadzadeh, M. 2018. Impact of integrated management of nitrogen fertilizers on yield and nutritional quality of potato. Journal of Plant Nutrition 41 (19): 2482-2494.
  16. Ewing, E. E., and Struik, P. C. 1992. Tuber formation in potato: induction, initiation and growth. Horticultural Reviews 14: 89-98.
  17. El-Said, M. A. A., and Mahdy, A. Y. 2016. Response of two wheat cultivars to foliar application with amino acids under low levels of nitrogen fertilization. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research 5 (4): 462-472.
  18. El-Zohiri, S. S. M., and Asfour, Y. M. 2009. Effect of some organic compounds on growth and productivity of some potato cultivars. Annal of Agriculture Science, Moshtohor 47 (3): 403-415.
  19. Gardner, F. P., Pearce, R. B., and Mitchel, R. L. 1985. Physiology of Crop Plant. Iowa State University Press. USA. pp. 186-208.
  20. Ghasemi, S., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H., Afyuni, M., and Hadadzadeh, H. 2013. The effectiveness of foliar applications of synthesized zinc-amino acid chelates in comparison with zinc sulfate to increase yield and grain nutritional quality of wheat. European Journal of Agronomy 45: 68-74.
  21. Hunt, R. 1982. Plant growth curves. The functional approach to plant growth analysis. Enwards Arnold Publlication, London.
  22. Jam, E., Ebadie, A., and Parmoon, G. 2015. The role of iron and zinc on tuber yield and yield components of potato. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology 9 (2): 177-190. (in Persian with English abstract).
  23. KleinKopf, G. E., Brandt, T. L., and Olsen, N. 2003. Physiology of tuber bulking. In: Proceedings of Idaho Potato Conference. Idaho, ID, 23-January. 4 p.
  24. Kumar, P., Rawal, S., Kumar, D., Kumar, R., Saini, N., Chand, R., and Sandhu, K. S. 2015. Influence of calcium dose and time of application on tuber yield and processing quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Annals of Agricultural Research 36: 28-37.
  25. Kleinhenz, M. D., and Palta, J. P. 2002. Root zone calcium modulates the response of potato plants to heat stress. Physiologia Plantarum 115: 111-118.
  26. Kolasa, K. 1993. The potato and human nutrition. American Potato Journal 70 (5): 375-384.
  27. Lafta, A. M., and Lorenzen, J. H. 1995. Effect of high temperature on plant growth and carbohydrate metabolism in potato. Plant Physiology 109: 637-643.
  28. Levy, D., and Veilleux, R. E. 2007. Adaptation of potato to high temperatures and salinity-a review. American Journal of Potato Research 84 (6): 486-506.
  29. Lonnerdal, B. 2000. Dietary factors influencing zinc absorption. Journal of Plant Nutrition 130: 1378-1383.
  30. Lynch, D. R., and Tai, C. 1989. Yield and yield component response of eight potato to water stress. Crop Science 29: 1207-1211.
  31. Malakouti, M. J., Shahabi, A. S., and Bazargan, K. 2016. Potassium in Agriculture: The role of potassium in the production of healthy agricultural. Moballeghan. Tehran. (in Persian).
  32. Manal, F. M., Thalooth, A. T., Essa, R. E. Y., and Mirvat, E. G. 2018. The stimulatory effects of tryptophan and yeast on yield and nutrient status of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum ) grown in newly reclaimed soil. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research 7 (1): 27-33.
  33. Marschner, H. 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, London.
  34. Mompie, E. I. J., Martín, R. M., Guevara, D. M., and Hernandez, Y. D. 2016. Classic growth analysis in three potato (Solanum tuberosum ) varities. Cultivos Tropicales 37 (2): 79-87.
  35. Mousapour Gorgh, A., and Hassanabadi, H. 2012. Analysis of growth and variation in trends of potato cv. Agria in different planting date. Seed and Plant Production Journal 28-2 (2): 187-208. (in Persian with English abstract).
  36. Mousavi, S. R., Galavi, M., and Ahmadvand, G. 2007. Effect of zinc and manganese foliar application on yield, quality and enrichment on potato (Solanum tuberosum ). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 6: 1256-1260.
  37. Omran, M. S., Taysee, M., El-Shinnawi, M. M., and El-Sayed, M. M. 1991. Effect of macro– and micro-nutrients application on yield and nutrients content of potatoes. Egyptian Journal of Soil Science 31 (1): 27-42.
  38. Parvizi, Kh., Souri, J., and Mahmoodi, R. 2011. Evaluation of cultivation date effect on yield and amount of tuber disorders of potato cultivars in Hamadan province. Journal of Horticultural Science 25 (1): 82-93. (in Persian with English abstract).
  39. Parrvizi, Kh., and Ghadami-firoozm Abadi, A. 2015. The effect of water deficit imposing methods on quantitative and qualitative traits of new potato cultivar. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 13 (3): 637-650. (in Persian with English abstract).
  40. Petrozza, A., Summerer,, Di Tommaso, G., Di Tommaso, D., and Piaggesi, A. 2013. Evaluation of the effect of Radifarmw treatment on the morpho-physiological characteristics of root systems via image analysis. Acta Horticulturae 1009: 149-153.
  41. Rafie, M. R., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. M., Shariatmadari, H., Darabi, A., and Dalir, N. 2017. Influence of foliar-applied zinc in the form of mineral and complexed with amino acids on yield and nutritional quality of onion under field conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 216: 160-168.
  42. Rizk, F. A., Shaheen, A. M., Singer, S. M., and Sawan, O. A. 2013. The Productivity of potato plants affected by urea fertilizer as foliar Spraying and humic acid added with irrigation water. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research 2 (2): 76-83.
  43. Rykaczewska, K. 2013. The impact of high temperature during growing season on potato cultivars with different response to environmental stresses. American Journal of Plant Sciences 4: 2386-2393.
  44. Rowe, R. C. 1993. Potato health management. ASP Press, USA.
  45. Sarhan, T. Z. 2011. Effect of humic acid and seaweed extracts on growth and yield of potato plant (Solomun tubersum ). Desirce cv. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture 39 (2): 19-27.
  46. Shaheen, A. M., Ragab, M. E., Rizk, A., Mahmoud, S. H., Soliman, M. M., and Omar, N. M. 2019. Effect of some active stimulants on plant growth, tubers yield and nutritional values of potato plants grown in newly reclaimed soil. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 29 (1): 215-225.
  47. Tekalign, T., and Hammes, P. S. 2005. Growth and productivity of potato as influenced by cultivar and reproductive growth. Growth analysis, tuber yield and quality. Scientiae Horticulture 105: 29-44.
  48. Van Dam, J., Kooman, P. L., and Strik, P. C. 2008. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on early growth and final number of tubers in potato (Solanum tuberosum ). Potato Research 39 (1): 51-62.
  49. Villordon, A., Clark, C., Ferrin, D., and Labonte, G. 2009. Using degree days, agrometeorological variable, linear regression, and data minig methods to help improve prediction of sweet potato harvested date in Louisiana. HortTechnology 19 (1): 133-
  50. Waglay, A., Karboune, S., and Alli, 2014. Potato protein isolates: recovery and characterization of their properties. Food Chemistery 142: 373-382.
  51. Yakhin, O. I., Lubyanov, A. A., Yakhin, I. A., and Brown, P. H. 2017. Biostimulants in plant science: A global perspective. Frontiers in Plant Science 7(2049): 1-32.