پاسخ‌های فیزیولوژیک گیاه سویا (DPX) به پیش‌تیمار بذر و محلول‌پاشی عصاره جلبک و کیفیت اولیه بذر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود، شاهرود، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود، شاهرود، ایران

چکیده

تغییراتی که در طی فرسودگی رخ می‌دهد بر کیفیت بذر تأثیر می‌گذارند. با فرسودگی بذر، قدرت بذر اولین جزء از کیفیت بذر است که کاهش می‌یابد و به دنبال آن ظرفیت جوانه‌زنی، رشد و استقرار گیاهچه نیز کاهش نشان می‌دهد. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر عصاره جلبک دریایی (Ascophyllum nodosum) بر بهبود کیفیت گیاهان حاصل از بذرهای زوال‌یافته سویا، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود طی دو سال زراعی 1398-1397 و 1399-1398 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل کیفیت اولیه بذر در دو سطح (بذر نرمال و بذر فرسوده) و عصاره جلبک دریایی در چهار سطح (شاهد، پیش‌تیمار بذری، محلول‌پاشی برگی، کاربرد توأم پیش‌تیمار بذری و محلول‌پاشی برگی با غلظت 3/0 درصد) بودند که در قالب آزمایش فاکتوریل با طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار سازمان‌دهی شدند. بذور در دمای 41 درجه سانتی‌گراد و رطوبت نسبی 95 درصد به مدت 72 ساعت فرسوده شدند. نتایج نشان داد میانگین ظهور گیاهچه در مزرعه، میزان قند محلول موجود در برگ، شاخص سطح برگ، هدایت روزنه‌ای، عملکرد روغن و عملکرد دانه در گیاهان حاصل از بذور فرسوده کاهش یافت. فرسودگی موجب افزایش در صفاتی از قبیل میزان اسیدهای آمینه آزاد و هدایت الکتریکی غشاء گردید. استفاده از عصاره جلبک به‌صورت پیش‌تیمار بذری در شرایط نرمال و فرسوده موجب افزایش میانگین ظهور گیاهچه در مزرعه به‌ترتیب به میزان 31/15 و 03/55 درصد نسبت به عدم کاربرد عصاره شد. کاربرد توأم پیش‌تیمار و محلول‌پاشی عصاره صفات شاخص سطح برگ، هدایت روزنه‌ای، عملکرد روغن و عملکرد دانه را به‌ترتیب 51/34، 72/23، 68/91 و 85/87 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد. در محدوده پژوهش انجام شده می‌توان کاربرد توأم عصاره جلبک دریایی به‌صورت پیش‌تیمار بذری و محلول‌پاشی برگی را به‌عنوان بهترین ترکیب تیماری در جهت بهبود صفات فیزیولوژیک در گیاهان حاصل از بذور فرسوده سویا پیشنهاد نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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