تجزیه و تحلیل اگرواکولوژیک بوم‌نظام‌های‌ زراعی چغندرقند (Beta vulgaris L.) در منطقه تربت حیدریه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی دکتری اگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران


این مطالعه با هدف دستیابی به یک تحلیل اگرواکولوژیک از بوم‌نظام‌های چغندرقند در مقیاس محلی طراحی و اجرا شد. بدین منظور مجموعه‌ای از مهم‌ترین شاخص‌های اگرواکولوژیک بوم‌نظام‌های کشت چغندرقند در منطقه تربت حیدریه، در بازه زمانی سال 1380 تا 1395 مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان داد که عملکرد چغندرقند در بازه زمانی سال‌های 1380 تا 1395، 59 درصد افزایش پیدا کرده است. درحالی که سطح زیرکشت چغندرقند روندی کاهشی داشت. محاسبه‌ی عملکرد پتانسیل با دو روش فائو و فائو تغییریافته نشان داد که میزان عملکرد پتانسیل در طول دوره‌ی مطالعه در منطقه تقریبا ثابت بود. میزان خلا عملکرد در بوم‌نظام مورد مطالعه درحالی کاهش یافته که بررسی ضریب عملکرد منطقه‌ای نشان داد که ارتقای سیستم مدیریتی منجر به بهبود عملکرد واقعی و درنتیجه کاهش خلا عملکرد گردیده است. در طی سال‌های مورد مطالعه، میزان فشرده‌سازی افزایش و ثبات عملکرد کاهش یافته‌است. کاهش ثبات عملکرد نشان‌دهنده‌ی عدم وجود پایداری در بوم‌نظام مورد مطالعه بود. با توجه به اهمیت کارایی مصرف نیتروژن بر پایداری بوم‌نظام‌های کشاورزی، نتایج نشان داد که میزان کارایی جذب، کارایی استفاده و کارایی مصرف نیتروژن در طی سال‌های مورد مطالعه در منطقه کاهش یافته‌است. بر این اساس به نظر می‌رسد، پایین بودن کارایی مصرف نیتروژن و روند کاهشی آن عامل اصلی افزایش مصرف نیتروژن، افزایش فشرده‌سازی و کاهش ثبات در بوم‌نظام مورد مطالعه می‌باشد. از این‌رو برنامه‌ریزی و تغییر شیوه‌ی مدیریتی با تمرکز بر افزایش کارایی مصرف نیتروژن می‌تواند به‌عنوان اولین گام در جهت حرکت به سمت افزایش پایداری در بوم‌نظام‌های کشت چغندرقند در منطقه مورد مطالعه پیشنهاد گردد.



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